The testimony offered to the Subcommittee on Energy Research, Development and Demonstration summarized the role of NIOSH in relation to mine safety and health. NIOSH research in this field has been directed toward protection of life and health, detection of respiratory impairment, and prevention of occupational diseases of coal miners as defined in the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. At the Appalachian Laboratory for Occupational Safety and Health in Morgantown, West Virginia, a broad research capability has been developed in epidemiology, clinical studies, laboratory investigations, and environmental research. NIOSH develops, tests, and approves air sampling equipment to provide a better means of evaluating the coal mine environment to insure compliance with established standards. More effective standards for the fit of facepieces and particulate filters were being developed. Operators of new and existing underground coal mines were being encouraged to develop a unified plan to assure that their health related responsibilities will be fulfilled. NIOSH supports the principle that before a new technology is introduced, an evaluation of its occupational health and safety impact should be made. The introduction of diesel powered equipment into coal mines is of particular concern due to the combined effects of inhalation of coal dust and inhalation of diesel emissions and exhaust particles. The need for improved education of the miner and the mine operator in the areas of mine safety is stressed.