The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health manual on cumulative trauma disorders of the upper limbs was presented. The manual was intended to assist nonmedical personnel in recognizing cumulative trauma disorders and to provide strategies for their prevention. Recognizing cumulative trauma disorders was discussed. The nature and source of cumulative trauma disorders were considered. The anatomical features of the upper extremities and how they relate to muscle, tendon, ligament and bursa injuries were described. Common cumulative trauma injuries such as tendon, nerve, and neurovascular disorders were reviewed. The types of jobs that could result in cumulative trauma disorders were discussed. The occupational factors that make these jobs likely to cause this trauma such as posture, force and repetition, were described. Procedures for identifying and analyzing records and jobs for indications of cumulative trauma were described. The major sources for analysis included: Occupational Safety and Health Administration Form 200; plant medical records; worker compensation records; safety and accident reports; and payroll records. Strategies for controlling cumulative trauma disorders were outlined. Guidelines for redesigning high risk jobs were presented. A glossary of terms and illustrations defining positions and movements of the body, diagnostic procedures used for identifying cumulative trauma disorders, and statistical techniques for evaluating the prevalence, incidence, and severity of cumulative trauma disorders were appended.