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The pulmonary toxicity of beryllium.

Authors
Kriebel-D; Brain-JD; Sprince-NL; Kazemi-H
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis 1988 Feb; 137(2):464-473
NIOSHTIC No.
00177827
Abstract
A wide range of research on the toxic pulmonary effects of beryllium (7440417) was reviewed. Early toxicological studies on beryllium were contradictory; by 1950, however, the evidence was clear that beryllium was toxic and that occupational exposure represented a major health hazard. Different animal species were exposed to beryllium aerosols characterized with respect to concentration and particle size, and the phases of the response to exposure described. The acute disease in humans is marked by inflammation and edema of contacted tissue, conjunctivitis, nasopharyngitis, tracheobronchitis, dermatitis, and/or pneumonitis. Treatment includes bed rest, oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation when needed, and corticosteroids. The chronic disease is systemic, granulomatous, and manifested primarily in the lungs; long term exposure is required and the latency period ranges from months to 25 years. Diagnosis based on clinical, radiographic, and lung function evidence has been found to be difficult. Epidemiological studies discussed included morbidity and mortality, as well as assessment of subclinical effects of beryllium. The mechanisms of disease were reviewed with respect to lung function, histopathology, and cellular responses (macrophage uptake and clearance; immune responses). A model of the cellular mechanisms of beryllium toxicity incorporating inflammatory and immune responses was developed. Future research priorities in epidemiology, toxicology, immunology, and disease prevention were discussed.
Keywords
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Beryllium-disease; Occupational-exposure; Pulmonary-function; Airborne-particles; Industrial-hygiene; Health-hazards; Occupational-diseases
CODEN
ARDSBL
CAS No.
7440-41-7
Publication Date
19880201
Document Type
Journal Article
Funding Amount
32257
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
1988
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R03-OH-01684
Issue of Publication
2
ISSN
0003-0805
Source Name
American Review of Respiratory Disease
State
MA
Performing Organization
Environmental Sci & Physiology Harvard School of Public Hlth 665 Huntington Ave Boston, Mass 02115
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