A chronic inhalation toxicity study of diesel engine emissions and coal dust, alone and combined.
Lewis-TR; Green-FH; Moorman-WJ; Burg-JA; Lynch-DW
Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust 1986 Jan; :361-380
Fisher-344-rats of both sexes and male cynomolgus-monkeys (Macaca- fascicularis) were tested to determine the effect of 1 to 6 month exposure to 2mg/m3 of diesel particles on pulmonary pharmacology, physiology, immunology, metabolism, neoplasia and mutagenicity, and to determine whether combined exposure to 1mg/m3 of respirable coal dust and 1mg/m3 of diesel particles was additive or synergistic. There was evidence of focal particle deposition in the lungs, alveolar cell hyperplasia, and lipoidosis in rats exposed to diesel exhaust, but no evidence of bronchitis, emphysema or fibrogenic changes. Both particle types affected the immunologic mechanism of the lung against infection, but failed to alter alveolar macrophage membrane integrity. Coal dust activated and diesel exhaust depressed phagocytosis. The combination of coal dust and diesel exhaust induced intermediate effects on secretory activity and surface morphology of macrophages. Alone or in combination, both agents altered the respiratory function of the animals. There was no evidence of tumorigenicity in treated monkeys, and the rat oncogenicity test was negative. Mixed-function-oxidase tests failed to demonstrate enzymatic alterations in the lung or liver. Mutagenicity tests carried out in mammalian systems using mice, rats, or monkeys demonstrated that diesel exhaust and coal dust were not mutagenic; no mutagens were detected in the urine of exposed rats. There was no evidence of gross toxicity and humoral and cellular immunity were not affected significantly by the treatments. Reproductive effects were undetected in male monkeys exposed for 2 years. The authors conclude that there are no synergistic effects between diesel exhaust and coal dust.
Diesel-emissions; Toxicology; Coal-dust; Chronic-exposure; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Immune-system; Metabolic-study; Laboratory-animals; In-vivo-studies; Respiratory-neoplasms
Book or book chapter
Ishinishi-N; Koizumi-A; McClellan-RO; Stober-W
Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust