Summarization of Recent Literature Pertaining to an Occupational Health Standard for Cadmium.
Syracuse Research Corporation, Center for Chemical Hazard Assessment, Syracuse, New York, Report No. SRC TR-80-579 1980 Jun:96 pages
Available information on cadmium (7440439) was reviewed. Topics discussed included human and animal toxicology, analytical and sampling methods, work practices, and engineering controls. Studies have shown that cadmium is absorbed by the body and distributed to various tissues with the lungs and gastrointestinal tract providing the primary routes of intake and adsorption. Industrial exposures arise mainly through inhalation of cadmium dusts and fumes. Cigarette smoking significantly increases exposure to cadmium through this route. Fumes and dusts produce acute and chronic lung disease and chronic systemic disease. Occupational exposure to cadmium is frequently involved simultaneous with exposure to other metals, complicating the problem of isolating a single causative agent. Exposure commonly occurs during heating or smelting operations with levels of cadmium dust being from 3 to 100 milligrams/cubic meter. The kidney is the critical organ for long term effects. The liver is considered to be one of the primary sites of cadmium accumulation and a major site of detoxification. Evidence for cadmium induced hypertension is still unclear. There is little human data concerning the transfer of cadmium across the placenta, uptake and distribution of cadmium in the embryo and fetus, and teratogenic effects. Available data fail to provide conclusive evidence that cadmium causes cancer.
NIOSH-Contract; Contract-210-78-0009; Cadmium-poisoning; Cadmium-compounds; Metal-workers; Metal-industry-workers; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Hepatotoxicity; Kidney-disorders;
NTIS Accession No.
Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Disease and Injury; Pulmonary-system-disorders;
Syracuse Research Corporation, Center for Chemical Hazard Assessment, Syracuse, New York, Report No. SRC TR-80-579