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Cytotoxicity of Native- and Surface-Modified Asbestos.

Vallyathan-V; Hahon-N; Booth-J; Schwegler-D; Sepulveda-M
In Vitro Effects of Mineral Dusts. Third International Workshop 1985:159-165
An in-vitro comparative evaluation was made of amosite (12172735), crocidolite (12001284), and chrysotile (12001295) asbestos in native and surface modified forms with regard to their biologic toxicity. After exposure of alveolar macrophages (AM) from Sprague-Dawley-rats to native and surface modified asbestos, lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH), a cytoplasmic enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (beta-GLUC) and beta- N-acetyl-glucuronidase (beta-NAG), and two lysosomal enzymes were measured as markers of cellular toxicity. The index of cell membrane damage was the hemolytic activity of all types of asbestos. The effect of native and surface modified asbestos on the induction of viral interferon system was monitored in Rhesus-monkey kidney (LLC-MK2) cell monolayers as a biologic marker of potential adverse effect on cellular defense mechanisms. LDH was released after exposure of AM to either native or surface modified asbestos. Only native asbestos released the lysosomal enzymes beta-NAG and beta- GLUC whereas surface modified asbestos did not cause any release of these enzymes. Native asbestos had higher hemolytic activity than surface modified asbestos. In all types of asbestos, a linear relationship was found between hemolysis and increasing concentrations of native asbestos. Induction of viral interferon was inhibited approximately 50 percent by pretreatment of kidney monolayer cells with all types of native, but not surface modified, asbestos. The authors conclude that modification of surface properties may reduce the toxicity of asbestos minerals.
Asbestos-fibers; Mineral-dusts; Particulates; Cell-cultures; Lung-disorders; Surface-properties; Carcinogens; Enzyme-activity; Toxicology; Laboratory-animals;
12172-73-5; 12001-28-4; 12001-29-5;
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Beck-EG; Bignon-J;
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In Vitro Effects of Mineral Dusts. Third International Workshop