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Cytotoxic and proliferative changes in tracheal organ and cell cultures after exposure to mineral dusts.

Authors
Mossman-BT; Adler-KB; Craighead-JE
Source
The In Vitro Effects of Mineral Dusts. Brown RC, Chamberlain M, Davies R, Gormley IP, eds., New York: Academic Press, 1980 Jan; :241-250
Link
NIOSHTIC No.
00158081
Abstract
The effects of mineral dusts on tracheal tissue were evaluated in- vitro. Explants of tracheobronchial mucosa prepared from female hamsters and guinea-pigs were incubated with 0.04 to 80 milligrams per milliliter hematite (1317608), crocidolite (12001284), or chrysotile (12001295) with or without added 2 percent chicken serum. At selected times between 15 minutes and 1 week, representative specimens were examined for morphological changes and cytotoxicity. A cloned cell isolated from the tracheal epithelium of a neonatal hamster was incubated with 0.5 to 10 micrograms per milliliter hematite, crocidolite, or chrysotile. The dusts were added when the cells were in the plateau or confluence phases. Monolayers were analyzed at 24 hour intervals for protein or DNA. The cells were examined for morphologic changes. Dose/dependent cytotoxicity was observed in hamster and guinea-pig explants exposed to crocidolite or chrysotile. Hematite showed no cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of chrysotile, but not crocidolite, was decreased when the incubation mixture contained chicken serum. Morphological changes induced by both forms of asbestos included vesiculation of the cytoplasm, desquamation of superficial cells, and hypersecretion of mucin secreting cells. In cloned cells, chrysotile caused a dose/dependent inhibition of growth, whereas crocidolite induced increased DNA concentrations. When chrysotile at 0.5 microgram per milliter was introduced into cultures at confluence, the DNA content was elevated, compared to control cultures. Hematite had no effect on DNA or protein content. Groups of cells would frequently align themselves along the crocidolite fibers, assuming spindle like shapes. Giant and binucleated cells were observed in cultures exposed to either crocidolite or chrysotile. The authors conclude that the cytotoxic effects of asbestos do not appear to be related to a soluble material in the mineral.
Keywords
NIOSH-Grant; Cell-biology; Exposure-levels; Physiological-response; Protein-chemistry; In-vitro-studies; Dust-exposure; Biological-effects; Tissue-disorders; Toxic-effects; Cytochemistry
Contact
Pathology and Oncology Medical Alumni Building University of Vermont Burlington, VT 05401
CAS No.
1317-60-8; 12001-28-4; 12001-29-5
Publication Date
19800101
Document Type
Book or book chapter
Editors
Brown-RC; Chamberlain-M; Davies-R; Gormley-IP
Funding Amount
235941
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
1980
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
ISBN No.
9780121372408
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-00653
Source Name
The In Vitro Effects of Mineral Dusts
State
VT
Performing Organization
University of Vermont & St Agric College, Burlington, Vermont
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