Methods Of Control For Smoking In Occupational Cohort Mortality Studies.
Steenland-K; Beaumont-J; Halperin-W
Methods of controlling for the effect of smoking in occupational cohort mortality studies are reviewed. When there is no data on smoking in a cohort mortality study, it is often difficult to determine whether an observed excess of disease is a result of occupational exposures, an excess consumption of cigarettes in the exposed cohort, or an interaction between the two. Many diseases associated with smoking are also work related. For example, lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases are among the smoking related diseases that can be caused by occupational exposures. If excess mortality in the cohort is observed for a cause of death that is known to be associated with smoking, it is important to attempt to control for the effects of smoking. Indirect methods for controlling for the effects of smoking are reviewed. These include analyzing other smoking related diseases, using an internal nonexposed cohort, making adjustments based on hypothesized differences in smoking habits for the exposed and unexposed populations, and analyzing the data for a dose/response relationship. Direct control methods are discussed. These include surveying the smoking habits of currently employed cohort members, surveying all cohort members, or performing a nested case/referent study within the cohort. The choice of which method to use depends on the cost and degree of accuracy required.
Cigarette-smoking; Mortality-rates; Industrial-environment; Pulmonary-system; Epidemiology; Occupational-exposure; Health-protection; Dose-response; Lung-cancer; Cancer; Workplace-studies;
Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Disease and Injury; Pulmonary-system;
Proceedings of the Third NCI/EPA/NIOSH Collaborative Workshop: Progress on Joint Environmental and Occupational Cancer Studies