Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search

Search Results

The application of epidemiology to the prevention of occupational cancer.

Authors
Landrigan-PJ; Rinsky-RA
Source
J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1984 May; 22(3):209-238
NIOSHTIC No.
00155800
Abstract
The relationship between epidemiology and occupational cancer is reviewed. The function of epidemiology in the prevention of occupational cancer is defined and the rules of evidence that have been developed for assaying causality in epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer are discussed. The first step in this direction requires establishment of a causal hypothesis, followed by determination of whether or not the hypothesis provides an adequate explanation of observed realities. Studies that demonstrate a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and human lung cancer are presented as an example to show the difficulties that confront such exercises. The use of the 1981 Interagency Regulation guidelines is recommended during documentation of epidemiologic methods and assessment of published data. Six criteria for determining causality in epidemiologic studies, namely the strength of association, its reproducibility, temporality, dose response relationship and specificity, and its biological plausibility, are discussed. The contribution to increased relative risk by such confounding factors as cigarette smoking is noted. Studies that examine the association between occupational exposure to benzene (71432) and subsequent death from leukemia are used to illustrate the application of epidemiology to prevent occupational cancer. Epidemiologic risk assessments indicate that an unexpectedly large number of excess leukemia deaths will occur in populations exposed to the current legal standard of 10 parts per million benzene. If these findings help bring about reduction in benzene standard, then epidemiology will have assisted in the prevention of occupational cancer.
Keywords
NIOSH-Author; Risk-factors; Exposure-limits; Occupational-exposure; Biological-effects; Chemical-properties; Trace-substances; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Smoke-inhalation; Occupational-hazards; Pulmonary-cancer
CODEN
JTCTDW
CAS No.
71-43-2
Publication Date
19840501
Document Type
Journal Article
Fiscal Year
1984
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
3
ISSN
0731-3810
Priority Area
Pulmonary-system-disorders
Source Name
Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology
TOP