Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Rom WN, Renzetti AD Jr., Lee JS, Archer VE, eds., Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1983 Jan; :329-350
Behavioral toxicology based on studies of workers exposed to substances believed to adversely affect the nervous system and human behavior is discussed. The development of behavioral toxicology in the United States is reviewed. Behavioral tests used in evaluation of workers are summarized. Tests can be divided into two categories, questionnaires and personality tests that address what people say about themselves and performance tests that measure what they are able to do. Questionnaires and personality tests identify the following: symptomatology suggestive of neurological problems; feeling or affect; and personality variables. Tests that differentiate mood or feeling include the Multiple Adjective Affect Checklist and the Feeling Tone Checklist. The Manifest Anxiety Scale is explained. Scales for the detection of abnormal personalities include the Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. The Rorschach ink blot test is discussed. Performance tests are divided into sensory tests, motor tests, and tests of complex function and memory. Sensory tests may test such areas as visual resolution or acuity, depth perception, peripheral vision, color vision, and pattern discrimination. Auditory tests measure tone decay and the threshold level of audibility for different pure tone frequencies. Tests of tactile sensitivity are used. Motor tests emphasize the speed or accuracy of responding and include: tests of strength, finger and arm steadiness, coordination, simple reaction time, and choice reaction time. Tests of complex function and memory include time estimation, mental arithmetic, and intellectual performance. Workplace neurobehavioral investigations are discussed for lead (7439921), carbon-disulfide (75150), styrene (100425), perchloroethylene (127184), solvent mixtures, leptophos (21609905), anesthetic gases, and carbon-monoxide. Limitations and problems relating to the application of behavioral tests in workplace studies and the interpretation of the results are addressed.