Mortality among a cohort of U.S. cadmium production workers - an update.
Thun-MJ; Schnorr-TM; Smith-AB; Halperin-WE; Lemen-RA
J Natl Cancer Inst 1985 Feb; 74(2):325-333
Mortality among US cadmium (7440439) workers was examined. A previous retrospective study of 292 workers employed for a minimum of 2 years in a cadmium recovery facility (SIC-3339) showed significant excess deaths from respiratory cancer, nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and prostate cancer. This study extended the examination to include 602 white males with at least 6 months of cadmium exposure in the same facility. Cumulative exposure was calculated for seven job categories and vital status were determined as of 1978. This included an additional 5 years to the original followup. Records of 411 alive, 179 dead, and 12 workers lost to follow up were examined. About 43 percent had been employed for less than 2 years. Nearly 66.6 percent of the workers were followed beyond 30 years and 83 percent for over 20 years. Death from respiratory cancer and nonmalignant gastrointestinal disease was significantly increased compared to the number expected from US rates, and lung cancer deaths, which occurred in employees with more than 2 years exposure, was related to the cumulative dose. There was a 50 percent increase in lung cancer mortality between 41 and 200 micrograms per cubic meter of cadmium over 40 years. No additional prostate cancer deaths or deaths from nonmalignant respiratory diseases were observed.
NIOSH-Author; Exposure-levels; Work-operations; Quantitative-analysis; Exposure-limits; Mortality-data; Workers; Mortality-rates; Exposure-methods; Renal-absorption; Mortality-surveys; Renal-toxicity
Journal of the National Cancer Institute