Summarization Of Recent Literature Pertaining To An Occupational Health Standard For Hexavalent Chromium.
NIOSH 1980 Jul:80 pages
Current literature on human and animal toxicology, analytical and sampling methods, work practices, and engineering controls on hexavalent chromium (18540299) is reviewed. Several reports indicate various dermatologic effects of hexavalent chromium including skin ulcers, dermatitis, and nasal perforations. Allergic sensitization in industrial workers is also reported to chromium compounds such as potassium-dichromate (7778509), and other compounds used in shoe industry (SIC-3131), nickel/chromium plating industry (SIC-3471) and in metaloplastic prosthesis industry (SIC- 3842). Bronchial asthma, nodular pneumoconiosis, and upper respiratory disorders are produced by inhalation of dusts or fumes of chromium compounds. Several epidemiologic studies indicate increased carcinogenic risk associated with exposure to hexavalent chromium, although these studies are not adequately controlled. Animal studies have so far failed to provide data on carcinogenicity due to inhalation, although induction of local tumors at site of injection is observed for many chromium compounds. Recent literature contains data on mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium and compounds. The authors conclude that the present NIOSH method of analysis for hexavalent chromium needs revision. In the presence of iron-oxide (1309371), as observed in the welding industry, the recovery of hexavalent chromium is as low as 1 percent. At present, no single method has been developed for analysis of chromium in blood and urine.
NIOSH-Contract; Safety-research; Industrial-safety; Occupational-health; Medical-research; Biological-monitoring; Physiological-testing; Carcinogens; Mutation; Industrial-chemicals; Contract-210-78-0009;
18540-29-9; 7778-50-9; 1309-37-1;
NTIS Accession No.
3131; 3471; 3842;
NIOSH, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Rockville, Maryland, NTIS PB83-238-253