Review, Summarization, And Evaluation Of Literature To Support The Update And Revision Of Criteria Documents. XI. Ultraviolet Radiation.
Durkin-PR; Meyland-WM; Santodonato-J
NIOSH 1978 Mar:27 pages
Recent literature pertaining to occupational health standards for ultraviolet (UV) radiation is reviewed. Analytical methods for measuring UV radiation are discussed. The effects on humans are considered. The major effects of excessive UV exposure are keratoconjunctivitis, skin erythema, photosensitization, and skin cancer. Epidemiologic evidence of a correlation between exposure to solar UV radiation and the incidence of skin cancer has continued to accumulate. UV radiation with wavelengths less than 305 nanometers (nm) are more effective than longer wavelengths in causing skin cancer. Laboratory animal studies are discussed. Exposure to single doses of 3 to 24 joules per square centimeter of UV radiation at wavelengths of 280 to 320nm has caused squamous cell carcinomas in mice. Work practices and methods of worker protection are examined. Shielding by goggles, face shields, clothing, and skin creams are cited as being the most effective. The authors conclude that UV radiation poses a definite cancer risk to humans. Hazards resulting from normal exposure by those working outdoors are different from those exposed to artificial sources. Based on the currently available information, it is not possible to determine quantitatively which poses the greater risk.
NIOSH-Contract; Safety-research; Skin-irritants; Health-hazards; Radiation-hazards; Industrial-medicine; Occupational-exposure; Animal-studies; Contract-210-76-0167;
NIOSH, Rockville, Maryland