Methods for gas and vapor sampling and analysis are reviewed. Basic sampling techniques are described, including grab sampling procedures for analysis of gross contaminants, and integrated sampling for removal of he contaminant from the sampled atmosphere over a given period of time. Criteria are listed for devising an integrated sampling scheme, such as efficiency of the sampling system, sample size, sampling media, and chemical from of the contaminant prior to analysis. Considerations are also discussed for sampling pumps, air flow measurement, sampling trains, volume and form of the collecting fluid, and type of absorber. Tabulated data is included on operating conditions collection efficiencies, and interferences for 19 compounds sampled by integrate sampling. Equipment used for grab sampling is described, such as gas collection bottles, evacuated flasks, and gas or liquid displacement type collectors. The use of flexible plastic bags for air and breath sampling is also evaluated. Mathematical formulas are included for calculating the absolute quantity of a substance under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.
The Industrial Environment - Its Evaluation and Control, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, NIOSH