III. Characterization of Coal Liquefaction Facilities.
NIOSH 1980 May:798-822
Potential health hazards of workers in coal liquefaction facilities were studied. Surveys were conducted in three facilities using the direct liquefaction process. Contaminant classes were identified through analysis of 8-hour area air samples by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, or high performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of selected contaminants were determined by personal sampling. The total number of compounds identified in air was 86 in one facility and 68 in another. The compounds were predominately low molecular weight aromatics with one to three rings. Fewer aliphatics were present. Personal monitoring samples showed that exposure was in the parts per million (ppm) range for the low molecular weight aromatics and in the microgram per cubic meter range for polynuclear aromatics (PNAs). Exposures to benzene (71432), toluene (108883), xylene (1330207), and the aromatic amines were well below OSHA limits. The author concludes that the spectrum of organic contaminants in the liquefaction workplace environment was smaller than expected but suggests that workers may be at added risk of developing cancer because of the presence of PNA constituents.
Health-protection; Mineral-processing; Organic-solvents; Coal-mining; Industrial-hygiene; Air-sampling; Air-contamination;
71-43-2; 108-88-3; 1330-20-7;
Proceedings of the First NCI/EPA/NIOSH Collaborative Workshop: Progress on Joint Environmental and Occupational Cancer Studies, May 6-8, 1980, Rockville, Maryland, H. F. Kraybill, I. C. Blackwood, and N. B. Freas, Eds. National Cancer Institute, Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health