Occupational health and safety in the geothermal hydrothermal convection industry is reviewed. Exploration, test drilling, production testing, field development and energy production phases of geothermal hydrothermal convection operations are described, along with emission control, dangers from hydrogen-sulfide, cleanout, testing and venting. Chemistry of geothermal sources, geothermal fluids, vapor dominated sources and contaminants such as carbon-dioxide, hydrogen, methane, ammonia, hydrogen-sulfide, nitrogen, benzene, boric-acid vapor, radon gas, mercury vapor and arsenic are discussed. Noise, heat stress and vibration hazards are described. Health hazards associated with drilling operations, field development, power facilities, electricity, fire, explosives, burns, seismicity, subsidence and blowouts are reviewed. Recommendations for further research on industrial hygiene, mortality, morbidity, medical surveillance, epidemiological and animal studies are presented.
NIOSH-Contract; Contract-210-77-0031; Health-surveys; Industrial-processes; Industrial-hygiene; Biostatistics; Geology; Geophysics; Thermal-properties; Thermodynamics; Hydrodynamics; Fuels; Heat; Heat-exchange; Heat-production; Fluids; Vapors; Chemical-analysis; Health-hazards; Occupational-hazards; Noise; Heat-stress; Vibration; Explosions; Fire-hazards