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Neurotoxic chemicals as probes of cellular mechanisms of neuromuscular disease.

Authors
Spencer-PS
Source
Neurotoxicology Unit, Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research in Mental Retardation and Human Development, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 1979 Jan; :1-7
Link
NIOSHTIC No.
00091808
Abstract
Possible cell mechanisms of toxic diseases of neurons and myelinating cells are discussed based on principles of cell biology. The authors mention that neuronopathies and schwannopathies are considered to be diseases of the perikaryon process of the cell, resulting in protein synthesis shutdown and axonal death from cessation of material transport. Distal axonopathies are the most common type of neurocellular intoxication response, in which toxins gaining access to the entire neuron and axon bind to and inactivate protein in the cytoplasm and cause a critical protein shortage in the distal parts of long and large axons. The toxins spare the neuronal perikaryon and affect large axons before they affect smaller, shorter ones. The affected axons undergo distal and retrograde degeneration, but neurons survive and can support axonal regeneration. Some toxins may cause accumulation of neurofilaments and block material transport. Proximal axonopathy has occurred only in response to one specific toxin, and may result from neurofilament blockades. No proximal myelinopathies are known to exist, but one possible reaction may involve Schwann cell demyelination.
Keywords
NIOSH-Grant; Neurotoxic-effects; Cellular-reactions; Biochemical-reactions; Neurotoxic-agents; Neuropathology; Neuromuscular-system-disorders; Cell-metabolism; Chemical-binding; Membrane-dysfunction; Nuclear-membrane
Contact
Pathology Albert Einstein Coll of Med 1300 Morris Park Avenue Bronx, N Y 10461
Publication Date
19790101
Document Type
Final Grant Report
Funding Amount
807725
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
1979
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-00535
NIOSH Division
OEP
Priority Area
Neurotoxic Disorders; Neurotoxic-effects
Source Name
Neurotoxicology Unit, Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research in Mental Retardation and Human Development, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York
State
NY
Performing Organization
Yeshiva University, New York, New York
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