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Clinical and experimental studies of distal axonopathy -- a frequent form of brain and nerve damage produced by environmental chemical hazards.

Authors
Schaumburg-HH
Source
Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Pathology (Neuropathology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 1979 Jan; :1-34
Link
NIOSHTIC No.
00091771
Abstract
Clinical and pathological studies of nervous system degeneration (distal dying back axonopathy) in man and experimental animals produced by acrylamide-monomer (79061), and hydrocarbon compounds (hexacarbon) are reviewed. Human distal axonopathies include toxic neuropathies induced by the industrial chemicals: acrylamide, n- hexane (110543), cresyl-phosphate (1330785), arsenic (7440382), carbon disulfide (75150), and the pharmaceutical agents clioquinol (130267), nitrofurantoin (67209), and isoniazid (54853). Among the results of the studies were a reappraisal of the dying back hypothesis, recognition of irreversible subclinical and clinical effects of distal axonopathies on the human central nervous system, a morphological rationale for the wide variety of previously enigmatic clinical phenomena in the human toxic neuropathies, and strong support for the usefulness of neuropathology in the screening of chemicals for neurotoxicity. The authors conclude that it has not been determined with certainty that morphological assays are more sensitive than behavioral testing for detecting the earliest signs of neurotoxicity in the distal axonopathies and that a recently begun collaborative study of behavioral analysis and a simultaneous morphological assay of the nervous system at various stages of intoxication in acrylamide treated rats might clarify the relative uses and merits of these techniques in detecting evidence of neurotoxicity in the distal axonopathies.
Keywords
NIOSH-Grant; Neurotoxic-effects; Pharmaceutical-chemicals; Toxic-substances; Spinal-cord-disorders; Nervous-system-disorders; Clinical-studies; Laboratory-animals; Animal-studies; Histological-reactions; Neurotoxic-agents; Pathological-studies; Neurophysiological-effects
Contact
Pathology Albert Einstein Coll of Med 1300 Morris Park Avenue Bronx, N Y 10461
CAS No.
79-06-1; 110-54-3; 1330-78-5; 7440-38-2; 75-15-0; 130-26-7; 67-20-9; 54-85-3
Publication Date
19790101
Document Type
Final Grant Report
Funding Amount
807725
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
1979
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-00535
NIOSH Division
OEP
Priority Area
Neurotoxic Disorders; Neurotoxic-effects
Source Name
Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Pathology (Neuropathology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York
State
NY
Performing Organization
Yeshiva University, New York, New York
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