Tuttle-TC; Dachler-HP; Schneider-B
The Human Side of Accident Prevention: Psychological Concepts and Principles Which Bear on Industrial Safety, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois 1975:7-44
The field of organizational psychology includes all aspects of the process by which people are utilized in an organized effort to achieve specified goals. Organizational psychology guidelines suggest action which should be taken at the highest organizational level: (1) to adapt to external conditions and (2) to promote an organizational climate that encourages safety. Outside factors, such as government regulations and conditions in the marketplace, affect the organization directly and also individually by their effects on workers. Concepts to be considered include organizational objectives, decision-making, communication, attitudes toward safety, and reward policy. Safety is enhanced when workers are matched with jobs compatible with their abilities and needs. Providing prospective employees with information about job-related hazards and occupational safety requirements allows them to judge the appropriateness of the job, working conditions and rewards in terms of their own capabilities and needs. This results in early work adjustment and in a correspondingly reduced probability of accidents. Job assignments should be based in part on ergometric analysis, which is the similarity between an individual's characteristics and the requirements of the job. Undue stress factors may lead to disruption of job performance and result in the increased probability of accidents. Group discussions can be used to develop group norms concerning safety which are more consistent with organizational objectives. Persons in formal leadership positions should have the necessary resources to influence safety behavior. Mechanisms for assessing levels of safety performance must be devised in order for the organization to monitor progress towards its goals.
NIOSH-Contract; Contract-099-72-0027; Group-dynamics; Industrial-psychology; Job-analysis; Supervisory-personnel; Psychological-factors; Safety-engineering; Human-factors-engineering; Behavior; Ergonomics; Workers;
The Human Side of Accident Prevention: Psychological Concepts and Principles Which Bear on Industrial Safety, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois