Following a brief classification of separation processes, a basic theoretical treatment with applications is provided of solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography. Other methods of separation are mentioned for their application and potential usefulness in problems of environmental analysis. These methods include liquid-liquid partition chromatography, thin layer chromatography, exclusion chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, zone refining, and thermal diffusion. For both solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography, there are included general principles and terminology, experimental techniques and outlines of illustrative procedures. Tables and figures give a classification of metal extraction systems, a diagram of a continuous extractor for use with a solvent lighter than water and one heavier than water, extraction constants and pH values of selected metal chelate systems, qualitative extraction curves for metal dithizonates, values of masking factors for representative metal ions and masking agents at various pH values, elements extractable with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, dithizone, and 8- quinolinol, elements extracted in a chloride system, concentration exchange constants for some metal ions on Dowex 50 resins with different extents of crosslinking, and concentration exchange constants for some anions on Dowex 1 and Dowex 2.
The Industrial Environment - Its Evaluation and Control, NIOSH, Cincinnati, Ohio, Chapter 18