Inorganic Lead: Biological Indices of Absorption - Biological Threshold Limit Values.
NIOSH 1976 Feb:165-177
Lead (7439921) concentrations of 80 micrograms/100 milliliters in blood and 200 micrograms/1000 milliliters in urine traditionally have served as biological threshold-limit-values in determining safe levels of occupational exposure. Studies using more than one biological index have shown that metabolic and enzymatic changes and organ dysfunction or damage can occur from chronic lead exposures resulting in blood lead levels lower than 80 micrograms/100 milliliters. Preventive medical programs should include biological indices, in addition to blood and urinary lead determinations, and also incorporate the recognition that untoward effects, including lead poisoning can occur at lead levels below traditionally accepted safe levels.
NIOSH-Author; NIOSH-Contract; Contract-210-75-0026; Chronic-toxicity; Air-contamination; Heavy-metals; Air-contaminants; Blood-chemistry; Toxic-substances;
Health Effects of Occupational Lead and Arsenic Exposure, A Symposium, NIOSH