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NIOSH Hearing Loss Research Program Review NIOSH Publications on Noise and Hearing The National Academies - Advisors to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

What has the program achieved?

In this section ....

Research Goal 1

Research Goal 2

Research Goal 3

Research Goal 4

HLR Databases

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Outputs and Transfer - Research Goal 1.6:
Develop a survey instrument to evaluate training effectiveness

The HLR program and its partners disseminated the survey and the interim results. In collaboration with U.S. and foreign partners, the HLR program used the survey and demonstrated its effectiveness in studies of coal miners and Brazilian and Swedish workers. Those results were published in scientific journals. HLR program researchers also collaborated with Michigan State University in a study of college students. The results of that study were reported in a doctoral dissertation. HLR program researchers also presented interim results in invited lectures at the University of Washington, the NHCA, the Acoustical Society of America, and the American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition.

Intermediate Outcomes

The UBC has expressed its intention to use the training methods validated by this survey in 150 training centers across the U.S. As a first step, the training methods are currently being integrated into existing training programs at two midwestern training centers. Successful implementation at these two centers is expected to lead to diffusion of the program throughout the other associated training centers, potentially reaching 500,000 workers who belong to the UBC.

The survey and the approach used to design the training have been used in CDC health communications workshops as examples of how health communications theory and practice can be used to solve occupational safety and health problems.

>> View What's Ahead for this Research Subgoal


Journal Articles
Landen D, Wilkins S, Stephenson M [2004]. Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss Among Sand and Gravel Miners, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 1(8): 532-541. (1 known citation)

Svensson EB, Morata TC, Nylen P, Krieg EF, Johnson AC [2004]. Beliefs and attitudes among Swedish workers regarding the risk of hearing loss. International Journal of Audiology 43 (10):585-593.

Witte K, Vaught C, Stephenson M. A Project to Evaluate the Role Positive and Negative Emotion Plays in Promoting Hearing Conservation Behaviors Among Coal Miners. Intl. Comm. Occ. Health. 2002 Oct :81-82.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [1997]. CDCynergy Communication Planning - Theory Planning Segmentation. Office of Communication, September, 1997, Atlanta, GA.

Joseph AR [2004]. Attenuation of Passive Hearing Protection Devices as a Function of Group vs. Individual Training. Doctoral Dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, December, 2004.

McDaniels M [1994]. The Development of a Hearing Conservation Attitude Survey. Final report prepared under NIOSH Contract 211-93-0006.

Stephenson MR [1996]. Empowering the Worker to Prevent Hearing Loss: The Role of Education and Training. Proceedings of National Hearing Conservation Conference XXI. Milwaukee: National Hearing Conservation Association, 1996.

Stephenson MR, Stephenson CM [2000]. Application of Health Communication Theories. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual U.S. Army Force Health Protection Conference, Baltimore, MD, August 8-10, 2000.



Stephenson MR. Behavioral Aspects of Occupational Hearing Loss, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle. WA. October 16, 2003.

Stephenson MR. Dealing With Barriers that Prevent Workers from Wearing Hearing Protection, American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, May 9, 2004.

Stephenson MR. The Effects of Removing Barriers to Hearing Protector Use, Acoustical Society of America, May 27, 2004.

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