Mining Publication: Determination of In Situ Deformation Modulus for Cemented Rockfill
As part of safety and stability studies at three underground mines in the United States, researchers installed earth pressure cells and embedment strain gauges in cemented rockfill to measure stress and strain changes as mining progressed and the rockfill was loaded. Data from these instruments were used to calculate the in situ modulus of the rockfill for two of the mines. A three-dimensional numerical model of a cemented rockfill cap was validated with data from extensometers anchored in the mine roof and sill; this model was then used to estimate deformation modulus at the third mine because the earth pressure cells and embedment strain gauges recorded negligible changes. Rockfill binder used at these mines ranged from 4 to 8 per cent of the dry components by weight, the water-to-cement ratio was from 0.42 to1.0, and the largest aggregate size in the three mixes ranged from 5 to12 cm (2 to 4.7 in). The range of the calculated in situ deformation modulus values was large, but as expected, it was bracketed by modulus values for cemented tailings and roller-compacted concrete with similar cement contents and water-to-cement ratios.