Mining Publication: The Effect of Standing Support Stiffness on Primary and Secondary Bolting Systems
Standing crib supports have been applied in underground mining programs to resist large roof movements and sustain highloads. The strength and deformation capability of these systems has been documented under both laboratory and field conditions. The parameter that has not been examined and is not well understood is the effect that a crib or other types of standing support has on the primary and secondary bolting systems. A crib support system with low system stiffness may allow large amounts of closure and deformation and cause the bolting systems to yield or even fail. Conversely, cribs or standing support that are too stiff may experience brittle or buckling failures, negating the advantage of the intrinsic supports previously installed. Utilizing a combination of field measurements and 3-dimensional finite element modeling techniques, the relationship between system stiffness and the subsequent performance of the installed bolting system is evaluated. Additionally, a simple method for calculating the combined system stiffness for standing supports, when using materials with different strengths such as steel, concrete, wood, etc., is presented.