Mining Publication: Temporal Imaging of Mine-Induced Stress Change Using Seismic Tomography
In an effort aimed at monitoring mining-induced stress changes that may influence ground failure, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a series of active 3-D seismic tomographic surveys at the Homestake (Lead, South Dakota) and Lucky Friday (Mullan, Idaho) mines. Existing rock bolts were used to mount geophones and as strike points for introducing seismic energy using a 3.6 kg sledge hammer. Travel time measurements were recorded spanning up to 160 m between drifts at several levels. The tomographic uncertainty was minimized by computing iso-velocity surfaces of constant probability based on statistics from multiple reconstructions and a threshold criteria. Periodic imaging using tomographic velocity surfaces demonstrated that temporal and spatial changes in the local stress field occurred in response to ground failure and stope advancement at a told and silver mine, respectively.