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Mining Publication: Quantification of Optical and Physical Properties of Combustion-Generated Carbonaceous Aerosols (less than PM2.5) Using Analytical and Microscopic Techniques

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Original creation date: March 2015

Cover page for Quantification of Optical and Physical Properties of Combustion-Generated Carbonaceous Aerosols (less than PM2.5) Using Analytical and Microscopic Techniques

A series of experiments were conducted to quantify and characterize the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated aerosols during both flaming and smoldering combustion of three materials common to underground mines—Pittsburgh Seam coal, styrene butadiene rubber (a common mine conveyor belt material), and Douglas-fir wood—using a combination of analytical and gravimetric measurements. Laser photometers were utilized in the experiments for continuous measurement of aerosol mass concentrations and for comparison to measurements made using gravimetric filter samples. The aerosols of interest lie in the size range of tens to a few hundred nanometers, out of range of the standard photometer calibration. To correct for these uncertainties, the photometer mass concentrations were compared to gravimetric samples to determine if consistent correlations existed. The response of a calibrated and modified combination ionization/photoelectric smoke detector was also used. In addition, the responses of this sensor and a similar, prototype ionization/photoelectric sensor, along with discrete angular scattering, total scattering, and total extinction measurements, were used to define in real time the size, morphology, and radiative transfer properties of these differing aerosols that are generally in the form of fractal aggregates. SEM/TEM images were also obtained in order to compare qualitatively the real-time, continuous experimental measurements with the visual microscopic measurements. These data clearly show that significant differences exist between aerosols from flaming and from smoldering combustion and that these differences produce very different scattering and absorption signatures. The data also indicate that ionization/photoelectric sensors can be utilized to measure continuously and in real time aerosol properties over a broad spectrum of applications related to adverse environmental and health effects.

Authors: I Perera, CD Litton

Peer Reviewed Journal Article - March 2015

NIOSHTIC2 Number: 20045851

Fire Technol 2015 Mar; 51(2):247-269


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