Mining Publication: A Practical Method of Measuring Shotcrete Adhesion Strength
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting research to develop safe practices for the use of shotcrete as ground support in underground mines, particularly mines operating in weak host rock. As part of this research, tests were conducted with a commercial poly-fiber reinforced shotcrete mix to develop a practical means of measuring shotcrete adhesion strength. Full-scale tests were conducted in a test frame equipped with concrete panels having three distinct surface roughness profiles. Adhesion test fixtures either embedded or epoxied in the shotcrete were overcored into the underlying concrete, and direct tensile tests were conducted to determine the bond strength of the shotcrete cores to the substrate after a selected shotcrete curing interval (1, 3, 7, 14, 28, or 90 days). Measured adhesion strengths typically ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 MPa depending on the curing age of the shotcrete samples. This paper presents the results of these tests, describes the portable test system components, and addresses some of the design issues encountered in the development of a rugged and reliable method for determining shotcrete adhesion strength in underground mines.