Mining Publication: Proceedings: Mechanics and Mitigation of Violent Failure in Coal and Hard-Rock Mines
Papers presented at a U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) technology transfer seminar describe the causes of violent material failure in U.S. mines, measurement techniques for monitoring events that result in violent failure, and mitigation techniques for controlling failure. Specific factors contributing to violent failure are identified on the basis of geotechnical monitoring in 16 U.S. hard-rock and coal mines and on statistical analyses of 172 coal bump events. New monitoring and analysis techniques developed as tools for assessing violent failure; geotomographic methods that provide new capabilities for the study of material failure and stress changes over large areas; and seismic methods for determining source locations, calculating energy release, and determining source mechanisms are described. Fair correlations have been established among seismic parameters, elastic stresses, face support load, and violent events. USBM studies have identified the advantages using both yielding and stable pillars for coal bump control. A computer program has been developed as an aid for selecting room-and-pillar layouts. The practical aspects of implementing a destressing program is outlined for coal mines, while the importance of mine orientation and timely support installation in controlling buckling-type failure is identified for hard-rock mines.