Mining Publication: Determining Cleat Orientation of Deeper Coalbeds From Overlying Coals
Examination of several coalbeds in Walker County, Alabama, Cambria, Greene, and Fayette Counties, Pennsylvania, and Caleigh and Wyoming Counties, West Virginia, indicates that cleat orientations are similar throughout a vertical sequence of strata. Studies of cleat orientation were carried out in underground mines that are operating in separate coalbeds vertically above one another. The data show that over a vertical separation of 100 to 400 feet, the average difference in coal cleat orientation between mines is 04 deg for the face and 08 deg for the butt cleat. Variations of coal cleat direction between coalbeds examined in strip-mined areas show similar values. Cleat orientations measured at outcrops agree well with the directions measured underground, suggesting that the amount of vertical separation between coalbeds has little effect on the resulting differences in cleat directions. The largest variation of cleat directions between adjacent coalbeds occurs where a large horizontal distance separates two sample locations. Cleat orientations for deeper coalbeds are most reliable where the data are taken from directly above.