Mining Publication: A Shotcrete Adhesion Test System for Mining Applications
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting research to develop safe practices for the use of shotcrete as ground support in underground mines, particularly mines operating in weak host rock. As part of this research, a rugged, portable direct tensile test system was developed for measuring shotcrete adhesion strength in underground mines. During the development of this test system, more than 185 direct tensile tests were conducted with a common, commercially available macro-synthetic fiber-reinforced shotcrete that was applied to concrete test panels using a dry mix process and machinery. The average bond strength of the shotcrete to the concrete substrate typically increased as a function of the shotcrete’s curing age, ranging from 0.44 MPa (64 psi) after one day of curing to 1.58 MPa (229 psi) after 90 days of curing. Adhesion strength increased markedly between one and three days of curing, reflecting a similar trend of increasing shotcrete tensile strength with curing time. This robust direct tensile test system can improve mine safety by providing a reliable means of measuring shotcrete adhesion strength and also supplying important information about the quality of the applied shotcrete and the competency of the underlying rock.