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May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

Crotonaldehyde

CAS number: 123-73–9 (trans–isomer)

NIOSH REL: 2 ppm (6 mg/m3) TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 2 ppm (6 mg/m3) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm (5.7 mg/m3) TWA

Description of Substance: Water-white liquid with a suffocating odor.

LEL: . . 2.1% (10% LEL, 2,100 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 400 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the report by Rinehart [1967] that a 1-hour exposure of 400 ppm is a lethal concentration for rats.

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal concentration data:

 


Species

Reference
LC50

(ppm)

LCLo

(ppm)


Time
Adjusted 0.5-hr

LC (CF*)

Derived

value

Rat

Rat

Rat

Mouse

Rat

Rinehart 1967

Rinehart 1967

Skog 1950

ten Berge et al. 1986

Trofimov 1962

600

-----

1,375

519

1,500

-----

400

-----

-----

-----

30 min

1 hr

30 min

2 hr

30 min

600 ppm (1.0)

712 ppm (1.78)

1,375 ppm (1.0)

1,647 ppm (3.17)

1,500 ppm (1.0)

60 ppm

71 ppm

138 ppm

165 ppm

150 ppm


*Note: Conversion factor (CF) was determined with "n" = 1.2 [ten Berge et al. 1986].

Other animal data: RD50 (mouse), 3.53 - 4.88 ppm [Steinhagen and Barrow 1984].

Human data: Exposure to 4.1 ppm for 15 minutes was highly irritating to the nose and upper respiratory tract and produced lacrimation in 30 seconds [Sim and Pattle 1957]. In another study, exposures to 45 ppm proved very disagreeable after a few seconds, with conjunctival irritation evident [Rinehart 1967].

 

Revised IDLH: 50 ppm

Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for crotonaldehyde is 50 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Rinehart 1967] and animals [Rinehart 1967].


REFERENCES:

1. Rinehart WE [1967]. The effect on rats of single exposures to crotonaldehyde vapor. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 28:561-566.

2. Sim VM, Pattle RE [1957]. Effect of possible smog irritants in human subjects. JAMA 165:1908-1957.

3. Skog E [1950]. A toxicological investigation of lower aliphatic aldehydes. I. Toxicity of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde; as well as of acrolein and crotonaldehyde. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 6:299-318.

4. Steinhagen WH, Barrow CS [1984]. Sensory irritation structure-activity study of inhaled aldehydes in B6C3F1 and Swiss-Webster mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 72:495-503.

5. ten Berge WF, Zwart A, Appelman LM [1986]. Concentration-time mortality response relationship of irritant and systematically acting vapours and gases. J Haz Mat 13:301-309.

6. Trofimov LV [1962]. Comparative toxic action of crotonaldehyde and butyraldehyde. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 6(9):34-40 (in Russian).

 
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