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Safe Grain and Silage Handling

1995
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 95-109
cover of 95-109

References

"Knowledge is of two kinds: we know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it."
—Samuel Johnson, 1775
English Writer

Agricultural Injury Statistics

Etherton JR, Myers JR, Jensen RC, Russell JC, and Braddee RW [1991]. Agricultural machine-related deaths. American Journal of Public Health 81(6):766-768.

Myers JR [1989]. The national traumatic occupational fatalities: a surveillance tool for agricultural work-related deaths. National Institute for Farm Safety Paper No. 89-9.

Auger and Elevator Safety

Moving and Positioning

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S361.3. Safety for portable agricultural auger conveying equipment. St. Joseph MI.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Baker DE [1987]. Hazards of grain conveying equipment. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293j. Ames, IA.

Banning M [1990]. A lethal part of the landscape. Ohio Monitor 63(9):8-10.

Farm and Industrial Equipment Institute [1985]. Portable auger safety manual. Chicago, IL.

Harner JP, Kramer JA [1987]. Transport auger (screw) conveyors. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication No. AF-164.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

NIOSH [1986]. NIOSH Alert: request for assistance in preventing grain auger electrocutions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 86-119.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Operating Safety

Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry and Labour and National Service and the State Departments of Agriculture and Departments of Labour, Department of Labour and National Science [1968]. Safety in rural industry: machinery safety. Melbourne, Australia.

Farm and Industrial Equipment Institute [1985]. Portable auger safety manual. Chicago, IL.

Fletcher WJ [1969]. Avoiding elevator and auger accidents. Farm Safety Review 27(6):5-8.

Harner JP, Kramer JA [1987]. Transport auger (screw) conveyors. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication No. AF-164.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Murphy, DJ, Williams, RC [1984]. Silo filling safety. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-22.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

Bin Safety

Crusted or Frozen Material Hazards

Aherin RA [1987]. Suffocation hazards associated with stored grain. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293i. Ames, IA.

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Fanning R, Hellevang K [1981]. Flowing grain entrapments. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 10-SAF-4.

Farm Safety Association [1985]. Flowing grain entrapment. Fact Sheet No. F-004. Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Field WE [1980]. Beware of flowing grain dangers. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. S-77.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere and Co. Service Training, Moline, IL.

Hood M [1972]. Don't die in the grain bin. Successful Farming 70(10):28-29.

Jepson RL [1981]. Entering grain bins safely. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. C-624.

Kramer JA [1989]. Safety measures in handling stored grain. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. AF-170.

Loewer OJ, Loewer DH [1975]. Suffocation hazards in grain bins. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Publication AEN-39.

NIOSH [1975]. Health and safety guide for grain mills. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.75-144.

NIOSH [1987]. NIOSH Alert: request for assistance in preventing entrapment and suffocation caused by the unstable surfaces of stored grain and other materials. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 88-102.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Schnieder R [1987]. Hazards of confined space. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293h. Ames, IA.

Entry Procedures

Aherin RA [1987]. Suffocation hazards associated with stored grain. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293i. Ames, IA.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Fanning R, Hellevang K [1981]. Flowing grain entrapments. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 10-SAF-4.

Farm Safety Association [1985]. Flowing grain entrapment. Fact Sheet No. F-004. Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Field WE [1980]. Beware of flowing grain dangers. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. S-77.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere and Co. Service Training, Moline, IL.

Hood M [1972]. Don't die in the grain bin. Successful Farming 70(10):28-29.

Industrial Accident Prevention Association [1986]. Safety and health procedural manual for grain and feed dealers. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 29-30, 71-76, 83-85, 93-94.

Jepson RL [1981]. Entering grain bins safely. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. C-624.

Kramer JA [1989]. Safety measures in handling stored grain. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. AF-170.

Loewer OJ, Loewer DH [1975]. Suffocation hazards in grain bins. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Publication AEN-39.

NIOSH [1975]. Health and safety guide for grain mills. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.75-144.

NIOSH [1987]. NIOSH Alert: request for assistance in preventing entrapment and suffocation caused by the unstable surfaces of stored grain and other materials. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 88-102.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Schnieder R [1987]. Hazards of confined space. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293h. Ames, IA.

Inside Safety Ladders

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Fanning R, Hellevang K [1981]. Flowing grain entrapments. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 10-SAF-4.

Field WE [1980]. Beware of flowing grain dangers. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. S-77.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Hood M [1972]. Don't die in the grain bin. Successful Farming 70(10):28-29.

Loewer OJ, Loewer DH [1975]. Suffocation hazards in grain bins. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Publication AEN-39.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Safety Ropes

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Fanning R, Hellevang K [1981]. Flowing grain entrapments. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 10-SAF-4.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Hood M [1972]. Don't die in the grain bin. Successful Farming 70(10):28-29.

Loewer OJ, Loewer DH [1975]. Suffocation hazards in grain bins. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Publication AEN-39.

NIOSH [1975]. Health and safety guide for grain mills. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 75-144.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Toxic Atmospheres

Aherin RA [1987]. Suffocation hazards associated with stored grain. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293i. Ames, IA.

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Fletcher WJ [1969]. Avoiding elevator and auger accidents. Farm Safety Review 27(6):5-8.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Industrial Accident Prevention Association [1986]. Safety and health procedural manual for grain and feed dealers. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 23-28, 73-76, 83-85.

Kramer JA [1989]. Safety measures in handling stored grain. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. AF-170.

Loewer OJ, Loewer DH [1975]. Suffocation hazards in grain bins. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Publication AEN-39.

Schnieder R [1987]. Hazards of confined space. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293h. Ames, IA.

Dump Box Safety

National Safety Council [1978]. Wagon safety. Chicago, IL.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425. Schwab CV, Ross IJ, Piercy LR, McKenzie BA [1985]. Vertical pull and immersion velocity of mannequins trapped in enveloping grain flow. Transactions of the ASAE. 28(6):1997-2002. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Fall Prevention

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

American National Standards Institute [1984]. American National Standard for ladders--fixed--safety requirements. A14.3-1984. New York, New York.

American National Standards Institute [1974]. American National Standard for ladders--fixed--safety requirements. A14.3-1974. New York, New York.

American National Standards Institute [1992]. Safety requirements for personal fall arrest systems. Standard Z359.1. New York, New York.

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S412.1. Ladders, cages, walkways, and stairs. St. Joseph, MI.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1910.66, Personal fall arrest systems, Appendix C. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Code of Federal Regulations [1992]. 29 CFR 1926.1053, Ladders. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1910.27. Fixed ladders. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Construction Safety Association. [1984]. Fall protection for deck installation. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Ellis N [1988]. Suspended scaffold dangers arise from poor fall protection. Occupational Health and Safety 57(1):20-22.

Farm Safety Association [1976]. Combine safety.

Gerling JF [1976]. Safe combine operation. Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service Fact Sheet No. 9417.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Marwick R [1984]. Climbing tower silos. Presentation to the International Silo Safety Conference. Farm Safety Association, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

National Bureau of Standards [1977]. A study of personal fall-safety equipment. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service Publication PB-269 355.

National Safety Council [1969]. Fixed ladders and climbing devices. Data sheet 606. Itasca, IL.

National Safety Council [1978]. Farm tractor safety. Chicago, IL.

National Safety Council [1992]. Fixed ladders and climbing devices. Data sheet I-606. Itasca, IL.

Rushworth AM, Mason S [1987]. Aids to selecting fall-arrest harnesses. The Safety Practitioner 5(9):22-27.

Sulowski AC [1979]. Selecting fall arresting systems. National Safety News 120(4):55-60.

Willsey FR, Loewer DH [1976]. Using grain harvesting equipment safely. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Publication No. OSHA 2287.

Fire and Explosion Prevention

Aherin RA, Van Fossen L [1987]. Hazards of grain dryer fires. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293g. Ames, IA.

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S248.3. Construction and rating of equipment for drying farm crops. St. Joseph, MI.

Balding J [1971]. Dust explosions. American Association of Feed Microscopists, Official Proceedings 19, Estes Park, CO. pp. 64A-74A.

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1910.110. Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere and Co. Service Training, Moline, IL.

Gerling JF [1976]. Safe combine operation. Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service Fact Sheet No. 9417.

Industrial Accident Prevention Association [1986]. Safety and health procedural manual for grain and feed dealers. Industrial Accident Prevention Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 23-28, 73-76, 83-85.

Jarrett VH [1979]. Combine harvesting safety. Utah State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. OSHMS 9-79.

Jepson RL [1981]. Entering grain bins safely. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. C-624.

Maness JE [1980]. Explosions can be caused by faulty propane or natural gas installations. National Grain and Feed Association. Washington, DC.

Murphy DJ [1980]. Guarding against corn harvesting accidents. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-15.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

NFPA [1992]. Standard for the prevention of fires and explosions in grain elevators and facilities handling bulk raw agricultural commodities. In: National Fire Codes, Volume 3. National Fire Protection Association 61B.

NFPA [1992]. Standard for the storage and handling of liquified petroleum gases. In: National Fire Codes, Volume 2. National Fire Protection Association 58.

NIOSH [1983]. Occupational safety in grain elevators and feed mills. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Safety Research. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 83-126.

Noyes RT, Johnson D Jr [1990]. Safety systems. Oklahoma Grain Elevator Workshop Manual--Maintenance. Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service Circular E-893.

Theimer OF [1973]. Cause and prevention of dust explosions in grain elevators and flour mills. Powder Technology 8:137-147.

Welty RE [1980]. Custom combine safety. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. AF-57.

Willsey FR, Loewer DH [1976]. Using grain harvesting equipment safely. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Publication No. OSHA 2287.

Flowing Grain Hazards

Aherin RA [1987]. Suffocation hazards associated with stored grain. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293i. Ames, IA.

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry and Labour and National Service and the State Departments of Agriculture and Departments of Labour, Department of Labour and National Science [1968]. Safety in rural industry: machinery safety. Melbourne, Australia.

Fanning R, Hellevang K [1981]. Flowing grain entrapments. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 10-SAF-4.

Farm Safety Association, Inc. [1985]. Flowing grain entrapment. Fact Sheet No. F-004.

Field WE [1980]. Beware of flowing grain dangers. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. S-77.

Field WE, Bailey RW [1979]. Entrapments and suffocations in flowing grain. ASAE Paper No. 79-5535. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere and Co. Service Training, Moline, IL.

Hood M [1972]. Don't die in the grain bin. Successful Farming 70(10):28-29.

Jepson RL [1981]. Entering grain bins safely. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. C-624.

Kramer JA [1989]. Safety measures in handling stored grain. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. AF-170.

Loewer OJ, Loewer DH [1975]. Suffocation hazards in grain bins. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Publication AEN-39.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

NIOSH [1975]. Health and safety guide for grain mills. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 75-144.

NIOSH [1987]. NIOSH Alert: preventing entrapment and suffocation caused by the unstable surfaces of stored grain and other materials. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 88-102.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Schnieder R [1987]. Hazards of confined space. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293h. Ames, IA.

Schwab CV, Ross IJ, Piercy LR, McKenzie BA [1985]. Vertical pull and immersion velocity of mannequins trapped in enveloping grain flow. Transactions of the ASAE. 28(6):1997-2002. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Harvester Safety

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S318.10. Safety for agricultural equipment. St. Joseph, MI.

Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry and Labour and National Service and the State Departments of Agriculture and Departments of Labour, Department of Labour and National Science [1968]. Safety in rural industry: machinery safety. Melbourne, Australia.

Farm Safety Association [1976]. Combine safety.

Gerling JF [1976]. Safe combine operation. Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service Fact Sheet No. 9417.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Jarrett VH [1979]. Combine harvesting safety. Utah State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. OSHMS 9-79.

Murphy DJ [1980]. Guarding against corn harvesting accidents. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-15.

Murphy DJ, Williams RC [1983]. Safe forage harvesting. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-21.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

Welty RE [1980]. Custom combine safety. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. AF-57.

Willsey FR, Loewer DH [1976]. Using grain harvesting equipment safely. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Publication No. OSHA 2287.

Hitching Safety

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S318.10. Safety for agricultural equipment. St. Joseph, MI.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Kyeremanteng S, Jones ET [1987]. Safety guide for farming. Alberta Farm Safety Program, AGDEX 086-6.

National Safety Council [1978]. Wagon safety. Chicago, IL.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Schwab CV, Ross IJ, Piercy LR, McKenzie BA [1985]. Vertical pull and immersion velocity of mannequins trapped in enveloping grain flow. Transactions of the ASAE. 28(6):1997-2002. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Human Strength and Anthropometric Data

Eastman Kodak Company [1986]. Ergonomic design for people at work. Vol 2. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., Inc.

Office of the Surgeon General-France [1981]. Manuel de Médecine du Travail et d'Ergonomie appliquées aux Armées.

Wilkinson RH [1991]. Anthropometrics and workplace design. In: Human factors: a series of quality instructional materials. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Loader Safety

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S355.1. Safety for agricultural loaders. St. Joseph, MI.

Baker DE [1987]. Hazards of grain conveying equipment. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293j. Ames, IA.

Fanning R, Hofman V [1985]. Avoid tractor overturns. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Kyeremanteng S, Jones ET [1987]. Safety guide for farming. Alberta Farm Safety Program, AGDEX 086-6.

National Safety Council [1978]. Farm tractor safety. Chicago, IL.

Lock Out

Aherin RA [1987]. Suffocation hazards associated with stored grain. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293i. Ames, IA.

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Baker DE [1987]. Hazards of grain conveying equipment. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293j. Ames, IA.

Benninga DA [1991]. Grain bin unloading--a review. ASAE Paper No. 91-5504. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Fanning R, Hellevang K [1981]. Flowing grain entrapments. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 10-SAF-4.

Farm and Industrial Equipment Institute [1985]. Portable auger safety manual. Chicago, IL.

Field WE [1980]. Beware of flowing grain dangers. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. S-77.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere and Co. Service Training, Moline, IL.

Jepson RL [1981]. Entering grain bins safely. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. C-624.

Kramer JA [1989]. Safety measures in handling stored grain. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. AF-170.

Kyeremanteng S, Jones ET [1987]. Safety guide for farming. Alberta Farm Safety Program, AGDEX 086-6.

Loewer OJ, Loewer DH [1975]. Suffocation hazards in grain bins. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Publication AEN-39.

Murphy, DJ, Williams, RC [1984]. Silo filling safety. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-22.

NIOSH [1987]. NIOSH Alert: request for assistance in preventing entrapment and suffocation caused by the unstable surfaces of stored grain and other materials. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 88-102.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Machine Servicing Safety

Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry and Labour and National Service and the State Departments of Agriculture and Departments of Labour, Department of Labour and National Science [1968]. Safety in rural industry-- machinery safety. Melbourne, Australia.

Farm Safety Association [1992]. Grinder-mixer guidelines. Farmsafe 17(1):6.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Industrial Accident Prevention Association [1986]. Safety and health procedural manual for grain and feed dealers. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 23-28, 73-76, 83-85.

NIOSH [1983]. Occupational safety in grain elevators and feed mills. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 83-126.

Non-Grain Material Separation

Balding J [1971]. Dust explosions. American Association of Feed Microscopists, Official Proceedings 19, Estes Park, CO. pp. 64A-74A.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere and Co. Service Training, Moline, IL.

Radley JA [1976]. Dust explosion hazards with starch and its derivatives. Chapter 5, Starch Production Technology, Applied Science, Barking, England.

Theimer OF [1973]. Cause and prevention of dust explosions in grain elevators and flour mills. Powder Technology 8: 137-147.

Power Line Contact

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Banning M [1990]. A lethal part of the landscape. Ohio Monitor 63(9):8-10.

Benninga DA [1991]. Grain bin unloading-- a review. ASAE paper no. 91-5504. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Dickie DE [1982]. Mobile crane manual. Construction Safety Association of Ontario. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Farm and Industrial Equipment Institute [1985]. Portable auger safety manual. Chicago, IL.

Harner JP, Kramer JA [1987]. Transport auger (screw) conveyors. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication No. AF-164.

UAW-GM National Joint Committee on Health and Safety [1987]. Mobile crane safety. UAW-GM Human Resource Center, Madison Heights, MI.

Power Unit Safety

Fanning R, Hoffman V [1985]. Avoid tractor overturns. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service [1991]. Tractor safety presenter's guide. Publication No. GT-311.

National Safety Council [1978]. Wagon safety. Chicago, IL.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Reaction Times to Unexpected Events

Evans L [1991]. Traffic safety and the driver. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp. 118-121.

Fletcher WJ [1969]. Avoiding elevator and auger accidents. Farm Safety Review 27(6):5-8.

Goldberg JH, Parthasarthy V [1989]. Operator limitations in farm tractor overturn recognition and response. Applied Ergonomics 20(2):89-96.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Murphy DJ [1980]. Guarding against corn harvesting accidents. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-15.

Olson PL, Sivak M [1986]. Perception-response time to unexpected roadway hazards. Human Factors 28(1):91-96.

Summala H [1981]. Driver/vehicle steering response latencies. Human Factors 23(6):683-692.

Wierwille WW, Casali JG, Repa BS [1983]. Driver steering reaction time to abrupt-onset crosswinds, as measured in a moving-base driving simulator. Human Factors 25(1):103-116.

Road Safety

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1910.145. Specifications for accident prevention signs and tags. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Collmer K [1991]. Tractor safety. Kansas State Cooperative Extension Service Publication MF-984.

Fanning R, Hoffman V [1985]. Avoid tractor overturns. State University Cooperative Extension Service.

Farm Safety Association [1976]. Combine safety.

Gerling JF [1976]. Safe combine operation. Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service Fact Sheet No. 9417.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Jarrett VH [1979]. Combine harvesting safety. Utah State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. OSHMS 9-79.

Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service [1991]. Tractor safety presenter's guide. Publication No. GT-311.

National Safety Council [1978]. Farm tractor safety. Chicago, IL.

National Safety Council [1978]. Wagon safety. Chicago, IL.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

Willsey FR, Loewer DH [1976]. Using grain harvesting equipment safely. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Publication No. OSHA 2287.

Rollover Protection (ROPS)

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S383.1. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for wheeled agricultural tractors. St. Joseph, MI.

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S519. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for wheeled agricultural tractors (ISO Compatible). St. Joseph, MI.

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1928.51, Subpart C. Roll-over protective structures for tractors used in agricultural operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1928.52. Protective frames for wheel type agricultural tractors--test procedures and performance requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1928.53. Protective enclosures for wheel type agricultural tractors--test procedures and performance requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Fanning R, Hofman V [1985]. Avoid tractor overturns. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

International Organization for Standardization [1989]. ISO Standard 5700. Wheeled tractors for agriculture and forestry--Protective structures--Static test method and acceptance conditions. Geneva, Switzerland.

International Organization for Standardization [1989]. ISO Standard 3463. Wheeled tractors for agriculture and forestry--Protective structures--Dynamic test method and acceptance conditions. Geneva, Switzerland.

National Safety Council [1978]. Farm tractor safety. Chicago, IL.

Society of Automotive Engineers [1989]. ANSI/SAE Standard J1194. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for wheeled agricultural tractors. Warrendale, PA.

Society of Automotive Engineers [1987]. ANSI/SAE Standard J2194. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for wheeled agricultural tractors. Warrendale, PA.

Safe Towing Weights

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S318.10. Safety for agricultural equipment. St. Joseph, MI.

Collmer K [1991]. Tractor safety. Kansas State Cooperative Extension Service Publication MF-984.

National Safety Council [1978]. Farm tractor safety. Chicago, IL.

Shielding and Guarding

Aherin RA, Schultz L [1981]. Safe storage and handling of grain. University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service Extension Folder No. 568.

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S361.3. Safety for portable agricultural auger conveying equipment. St. Joseph, MI.

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S318.10. Safety for agricultural equipment. St. Joseph, MI.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Baker DE [1987]. Hazards of grain conveying equipment. Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication Pm-1293j. Ames, IA.

Benninga DA [1991]. Grain bin unloading-- a review. ASAE paper no. 91-5504. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1928.57, Subpart D. Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Collmer K [1991]. Tractor safety. Kansas State Cooperative Extension Service Publication MF-984.

Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry and Labour and National Service and the State Departments of Agriculture and Departments of Labour, Department of Labour and National Science [1968]. Safety in rural industry: machinery safety. Melbourne, Australia.

Farm and Industrial Equipment Institute [1985]. Portable auger safety manual. Chicago, IL.

Farm Safety Association [1992]. Grinder-mixer guidelines. Farmsafe 17(1):6.

Fletcher WJ [1969]. Avoiding elevator and auger accidents. Farm Safety Review 27(6):5-8.

Harner JP, Kramer JA [1987]. Transport auger (screw) conveyors. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication No. AF-164.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Industrial Accident Prevention Association [1986]. Safety and health procedural manual for grain and feed dealers. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 23-28, 73-76, 83-85.

Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service [1991]. Tractor safety presenter's guide. Publication No. GT-311.

Kramer JA [1989]. Safety measures in handling stored grain. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. AF-170.

Kyeremanteng S, Jones ET [1987]. Safety guide for farming. Alberta Farm Safety Program, AGDEX 086-6.

Murphy, DJ, Williams, RC [1984]. Silo filling safety. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-22.

National Safety Council [1978]. Farm tractor safety. Chicago, IL.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

NIOSH [1983]. Occupational safety in grain elevators and feed mills. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 83-126.

NIOSH [1994]. NIOSH Alert: request for assistance in preventing scalping and other severe injuries from farm machinery. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-105.

Roome L, Brown GM [1980]. Grain center safety. Michigan State University AEIS No. 425.

Sevart JB, Berry TA [1991]. Reducing risk of grain auger systems. ASAE paper 91-5505. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Sevart JB, Thompson DA [1985]. Use of non-metallic flighting to prevent grain auger intake injuries. ASAE Paper No. MCR 85-148. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Silo Safety

Blower Tubes and Blowers

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Murphy, DJ, Williams, RC [1984]. Silo filling safety. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-22.

Gases and Ventilation

Aherin, RA [1982]. Enclosed environments of silos and grain storage structures. Annals of the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists 2:129-135.

American Lung Association [1985]. Agricultural lung hazards. New York, NY.

Bilderback, B [1976]. Killer gas inside. Farm Safety Association, Ontario, Canada.

Commins, BT, Raveney, FJ, Jesson, MW [1971]. Toxic gases in tower silos. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 14(3):275-283.

Farm Safety Association [1985]. Silo gas--a swift and silent killer. Fact Sheet No. F-010, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Grout, AR [1974]. Silo hazards of gases and fires. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-4.

Groves, JA and Ellwood, PA [1989]. Gases in forage tower silos. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 33(4):519-535.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Murphy, DJ, Williams, RC [1980]. Silo gases: the hidden danger. The Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet Safety-16.

Schrottmaier, J [1982]. Protection from silo gas. Ergonomics 25(1):89-105.

Tractor Safety

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1910.145. Specifications for accident prevention signs and tags. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry and Labour and National Service and the State Departments of Agriculture and Departments of Labour, Department of Labour and National Science [1968]. Safety in rural industry: machinery safety. Melbourne, Australia.

Fanning R, Hofman V [1985]. Avoid tractor overturns. North Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

Hunter AGM, Owen FM [1983]. Tractor overturning accidents on slopes. Journal of Occupational Accidents 5:195-210.

Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service [1991]. Tractor safety presenter's guide. Publication No. GT-311.

National Safety Council [1978]. Farm tractor safety. Chicago, IL.

Wagon Safety

Brakes

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

National Safety Council [1978]. Farm tractor safety. Chicago, IL.

National Safety Council [1978]. Wagon safety. Chicago, IL.

National Safety Council [1979]. Grain harvest safety. Chicago, IL.

Lighting and Marking

American Society of Agricultural Engineers [1992]. ASAE Standard S279.9. Lighting and marking of agricultural field equipment on highways. St. Joseph, MI.

Baker DE [1983]. University of Missouri-Columbia Extension Division agricultural guide: safe storage and handling of grain. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri and Lincoln University, Columbia, MO.

Code of Federal Regulations [1993]. 29 CFR 1910.145. Specifications for accident prevention signs and tags. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Hathaway LR, Riney LA, eds. [1987]. Fundamentals of machine operation (FMO): agricultural safety. Deere & Company Service Training, Moline, IL.

National Safety Council [1978]. Wagon safety. Chicago, IL.

 
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