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Urea, 2 - thio -

RTECS #: YU2800000

CAS #: 62-56-6


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 76.13 MF: CH4N2S


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 2 - Thiopseudourea
  2. 2 - Thiourea
  3. Isothiourea
  4. Pseudothiourea
  5. RCRA waste number U219
  6. Sulourea
  7. THU
  8. Thiocarbamide
  1. Thiocarbonic acid diamide
  2. Thiomocovina (Czech)
  3. Thiourea
  4. Tsizp 34
  5. USAF EK - 497
  6. Urea, thio - (8CI)
  7. beta - Thiopseudourea


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
14% GTPZAB 30(3),42,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 20 mol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA damage rat liver 30 mmol/L SinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA inhibition human fibroblast 60 mmol/L MUREAV 183,89,1987
DNA inhibition human lymphocyte 20 mmol/L PNASA6 79,1171,1982
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 140 mmol/L CRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA repair Escherichia coli 329 mmol/L MUREAV 272,145,1992
DNA repair human lymphocyte 1 mmol/L/1 hour TXAPA9 218,249,2007
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 10 mmol/L CNREA8 42,3010,1982
host-mediated assay mouse
Salmonella typhimurium
125 mg/kg JJIND8 62,911,1979
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 150 g/plate (+enzymatic activation step) ABCHA6 44,3017,1980
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 52,600 mol/L (-enzymatic activation step) MGGEAE 174,39,1979
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 1,256 mg/L/16 hour MUTAEX 20,105,2004
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 10 mmol/L ARTODN 58,5,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 18 mmol/L MUTAEX 3,193,1988
morphological transform hamster embryo 100 g/L IJCNAW 19,642,1977
morphological transform hamster embryo 100 g/L JJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transform rat embryo 100 mg/L JJIND8 67,1303,1981


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 9 gm/kg (90 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male
THGNBO 25,263,1986
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 22,400 mg/kg (10 week prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Other effects on female
BIREBV 36,719,1987
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TJADAB 23,335,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 13,263,1976
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TJADAB 23,335,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,400 mg/kg (16-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system AMASA4 32,271,1975
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,800 mg/kg (17-22 day pregnant/10 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TJADAB 31,57A,1985


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 151 gm/kg/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors

Ear: Tumors
CNREA8 17,302,1957
multiple
rat
toxic dose : 179 gm/kg/1 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 14,494,1954
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 78 gm/kg/56 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors

Ear: Tumors
CNREA8 17,302,1957
oral
rat
toxic dose : 18 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
SCIEAS 108,626,1948
oral
rat
toxic dose : 40 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
SCIEAS 108,626,1948
oral
rat
toxic dose : 1,950 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Multiple effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TXAPA9 11,88,1967
oral
rat
toxic dose : 90 gm/kg/1 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
BJEPA5 28,46,1947


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,500 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 30(3),42,1986
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg N/R NTIS** AD277-689
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 436 mg/kg N/R FCTXAV 3,597,1965
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kg N/R GTPZAB 30(3),42,1986
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 125 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 5,177,1959
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction BIJOAK 47,77,1950
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 6,985 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 5,177,1959
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 1,660 mg/kg/5 week Blood: Hemorrhage

Blood: Granulocytopenia

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
LANCAO 246,179,1944
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 10 gm/kg N/R HBTXAC 5,177,1959
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 4 gm/kg N/R HBTXAC 5,177,1959
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 147 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/17 week- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
GTPZAB 30(3),42,1986
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 47,200 g/m3/39 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
GTPZAB 16(6),51,1972
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
IVEJAC 69,111,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,550 mg/kg/5 week- continuous Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight JPETAB 97,349,1949


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human No Adequate Data IMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 79,-,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85CVA2 5,250,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 128,117,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,501,2002


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.3 mg/m3, JUN2003


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 82272;
Number of Industries 29;
Total Number of Facilities 1,179;
Number of Occupations 25;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 12,517
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 82272;
Number of Industries 50;
Total Number of Facilities 2,999;
Number of Occupations 57;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 37,571;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 10,969


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Cell transform.-SA7/F344 rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: SHE-clonal assay; Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; E coli polA with S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Histidine reversion-Ames test; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as rubber antiozonant, toning agent, corrosion inhibitor and in pharmaceuticals
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85CVA2 "Oncology 1970, Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress," Chicago, Year Book Medical Pub., 1971
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
ABCHA6 Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. (Maruzen Co. Ltd., POB 5050, Tokyo International, Tokyo 100-31, Japan) V.25- 1961-
AMASA4 Acta Medica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. (Budapest, Hungary) V.1-39, 1950-82.
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BIJOAK Biochemical Journal. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 1906-
BIREBV Biology of Reproduction. (Soc. for the Study of Reproduction, 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1969-
BJEPA5 British Journal of Experimental Pathology. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.1- 1920-
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBTXAC "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59
HTOPA*
IJCNAW International Journal of Cancer. (International Union Against Cancer, 3 rue du Conseil- General, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland) V.1- 1966-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IVEJAC Indian Veterinary Journal. (Dr. R. Krishnamurti, G.M.V.C., 8 Avenue Rd., Madras 600 034, India) V.1- 1924-
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
LANCAO Lancet. (7 Adam St., London WC2N 6AD, UK) V.1- 1823-
MGGEAE Molecular and General Genetics. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.99- 1967-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PNASA6 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (National Academy of Sciences, Printing & Pub. Office, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418) V.1- 1915-
SCIEAS Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1895-
SinJF# Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982
THGNBO Theriogenology. (Geron-X, Inc., P.O. Box 1108, Los Altos, CA 94022) V.1- 1974-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-

Used as rubber antiozonant, toning agent, corrosion inhibitor and in pharmaceuticals

NIOSH PROFILE (THIOUREA AND COMPOUNDS), SRC, 1/82

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

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