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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Urea, 2-thio-

RTECS #

YU2800000

CAS #

62-56-6

Updated

December 2012

Molecular Weight

76.13

Molecular Formula

CH4N2S

Synonyms

2-Thiopseudourea
2-Thiourea
beta-Thiopseudourea
Isothiourea
Pseudothiourea
RCRA waste number U219
Sulourea
Thiocarbamide
Thiocarbonic acid diamide
Thiomocovina (Czech)
Thiourea
THU
Tsizp 34
Urea, thio- (8CI)
USAF EK-497

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 14%GTPZAB 30(3),42,1986

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli20 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA Damageliver/rat30 mmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/human60 mmol/LMUREAV 183,89,1987
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human20 mmol/LPNASA6 79,1171,1982
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human140 mmol/LCRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA repair/Escherichia coli329 mmol/LMUREAV 272,145,1992
DNA repairlymphocyte/human1 mmol/L/1HTXAPA9 218,249,2007
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse125 mg/kgJJIND8 62,911,1979
morphological transformembryo/hamster100 µg/LIJCNAW 19,642,1977
morphological transformembryo/hamster100 µg/LJJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transformembryo/rat100 mg/LJJIND8 67,1303,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster10 mmol/LARTODN 58,5,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse18 mmol/LMUTAEX 3,193,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1256 mg/L/16HMUTAEX 20,105,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium150 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)ABCHA6 44,3017,1980
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae52600 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MGGEAE 174,39,1979
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat10 mmol/LCNREA8 42,3010,1982

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 240 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 13,263,1976
oral/rat 1 gm/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TJADAB 23,335,1981
oral/rat 1400 mg/kg (16-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemAMASA4 32,271,1975
oral/rat 4800 mg/kg (17-22D preg/10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TJADAB 31,57A,1985
oral/mouse 1 gm/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TJADAB 23,335,1981
oral/hamster 22400 mg/kg (10W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Other effects on female
BIREBV 36,719,1987
oral/domestic animal 9 gm/kg (90D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male
THGNBO 25,263,1986

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
multiple/rat lowest published toxic dose: 151 gm/kg/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors

Ear: Tumors
CNREA8 17,302,1957
multiple/rat toxic dose: 179 gm/kg/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 14,494,1954
oral/rat toxic dose: 90 gm/kg/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
BJEPA5 28,46,1947
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 78 gm/kg/56W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors

Ear: Tumors
CNREA8 17,302,1957
oral/rat toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
SCIEAS 108,626,1948
oral/rat toxic dose: 40 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
SCIEAS 108,626,1948
oral/rat toxic dose: 1950 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Multiple effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TXAPA9 11,88,1967

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 134 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
intraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3500 mg/kgGTPZAB 30(3),42,1986
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgNTIS** AD277-689
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 436 mg/kgFCTXAV 3,597,1965
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgGTPZAB 30(3),42,1986
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 6985 mg/kgHBTXAC 5,177,1959
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 125 mg/kgHBTXAC 5,177,1959
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionBIJOAK 47,77,1950
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 1660 mg/kg/5WBlood: Hemorrhage

Blood: Granulocytopenia

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
LANCAO 246,179,1944
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 10 gm/kgHBTXAC 5,177,1959
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 4 gm/kgHBTXAC 5,177,1959
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 147 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/17W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
GTPZAB 30(3),42,1986
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 47200 µg/m3/39W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
GTPZAB 16(6),51,1972
oral/domestic animal lowest published toxic dose: 4500 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
IVEJAC 69,111,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2550 mg/kg/5W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in thyroid weightJPETAB 97,349,1949

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 79,-,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85CVA2 5,250,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 128,117,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 79,703,

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.3 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, 2003

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 82272; Number of Industries 50; Total Number of Facilities 2999; Number of Occupations 57; Total Number of Employees Exposed 37571; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 10969
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 82272; Number of Industries 29; Total Number of Facilities 1179; Number of Occupations 25; Total Number of Employees Exposed 12517

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; E coli polA with S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Histidine reversion-Ames test; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Cell transform.-SA7/F344 rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: SHE-clonal assay; Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
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