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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Sulfide, bis(2-chloroethyl)

RTECS #

WQ0900000

CAS #

505-60-2; 69020-37-7

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

159.08

Molecular Formula

C4H8Cl2S

Synonyms

1,1'-Thiobis(2-chloroethane)
1-Chloro-2-(beta-chloroethylthio)ethane
2,2'-Dichloro diethyl sulphide
2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl sulfide
2,2'-Dichloroethyl sulphide
beta,beta-Dichlor-ethyl-sulphide
beta,beta'-Dichloroethyl sulfide
bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide
Bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide
Bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide
Bis(beta-chloroethyl)sulfide
Di-2-chloroethyl sulfide
Distilled mustard
Gelbkreuz (Czech)
HD
Kampstoff lost
Mustard gas
Mustard HD
Mustard vapor
Mustard, sulfur
S mustard
Schwefel-lost
S-Lost
Sulfur mustard
Sulfur mustard gas
Sulphur mustard
Sulphur mustard gas
Yellow cross liquid
Yperite

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /man 0.1 ppm/6H moderateNTIS** AD-A011-260
eye /rabbit 0.2 ppm/30M mildNTIS** AD-A011-260
eye /rabbit 0.2 ppm/2M mildNTIS** AD-A011-260
eye /rabbit 0.4 µL/24H severeJAPTO* 20,S173,2000
eye /rabbit 10 µL/4M severeTXCYAC 263,59,2009
skin /human 65 µgNTIS** PB158-508
skin /man 2 ppm/1H severeNTIS** AD-A011-260
skin /mouse 160 µg/24H severeTOXID9 66,161,2002
skin /mouse 0.08 mg/7D severeTOXID9 72,162,2003
skin /mouse 250 µg/10M open irritation test severeJAPTO* 26,81,2006
skin /mouse 0.08 mg/72H open irritation test severeJAPTO* 26,239,2006
skin /pig 400 µL/8M open irritation test severeTOXID9 -,27,2008
skin /pigeon 400 µL/2M severeTOXID9 66,163,2002
skin /rabbit 1 µL/24HTOXID9 72,164,2003

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/Drosophila melanogaster10 pph/15M- intermittentPREBA3 62,271,1946/1947
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human4 mg/LPJPPAA 39,405,1987
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/rat20 ng/LMUREAV 22,207,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/mouse20 µg/LMUREAV 21,6,1973
DNA adductAscites tumor/mouse2 mg/kgBIJOAK 80,496,1961
DNA adductother cell types/human100 µmol/L/5MCBINA8 138,231,2001
DNA Damageleukocyte/chicken30 mmol/LTELEAY (29),2477,1975
DNA Damageliver/rat80 µmol/L/18HTXAPA9 176,24,2001
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse1 mg/LBBACAQ 179,179,1969
DNA Damage/Saccharomyes cerevisiae500 µmol/LCBINA8 44,27,1983
DNA Damageother cell types/human1 µmol/LMUREAV 294,235,1993
DNA DamageHeLa cell/human2 mg/LCBINA8 4,297,1971/1972
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human500 nmol/LTIVIEQ 6,245,1992
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human75 mg/LIUSMDJ 9,41,1979
DNA repair/Escherichia coli5 µg/wellMUREAV 46,53,1977
Dominant Lethal Testinhalation/Drosophila melanogaster10 pph/15M- intermittentPREBA3 62,271,1946/1947
Dominant Lethal Testinhalation/rat100 µg/m3/12W-continuousMUREAV 21,13,1973
heritable translocation testinhalation/Drosophila melanogaster10 pph/15M- intermittentPREBA3 62,271,1946/1947
host-mediated assayleukocyte/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 21,6,1973
host-mediated assayEscherichia coli/mouse8 mg/kgCNREA8 34,3073,1974
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse8 mg/kgMUREAV 257,307,1991
micronucleus testoral/mouse10 mg/kgMUREAV 257,307,1991
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsleukocyte/mouse20 µg/LMUREAV 21,6,1973
mutation in microorganisms/Neurospora crassa200 µmol/L/30M (-enzymatic activation step)PNASA6 35,581,1949
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 257,307,1991
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli8 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)CNREA8 34,3073,1974
other mutation test systemsHeLa cell/human75 mg/LIUSMDJ 9,41,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctioninhalation/Drosophila melanogaster10 pph/15M- intermittentPREBA3 62,271,1946/1947
sister chromatid exchangeleukocyte/human8 mg/LPJPPAA 39,405,1987
specific locus testparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster300 µmol/LMUREAV 13,19,1971
Unscheduled DNA SynthesisHeLa cell/human200 mg/LNATUAS 218,970,1968
Unscheduled DNA Synthesislymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)750 nmol/LCHRTBC 3,162,1972

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 20 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 33,70C,1986
oral/rat 25 mg/kg (10W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
NTIS** AD-A214-556
oral/rat 68800 µg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
REPTED 10,311,1996
oral/rabbit 11200 µg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TJADAB 33,70C,1986

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/m3/10MTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
MUREAV 678,1,2009
inhalation/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.013 mg/m3/8HTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
MUREAV 678,1,2009
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1250 mg/m3/15M-continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
PSEBAA 82,457,1953
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTIS** AD-A011-260
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/m3/6.5H/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
JTEHF8 59,471,2000
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/6D- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JNCIAM 11,415,1950
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg/6W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 14,131,1953

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Hamster, ovary Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 152.1 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TXAPA9 247,179,2010
In Vitro/Hamster, ovary Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/5HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTXAPA9 247,179,2010
In Vitro/Hamster, ovary Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/33MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 247,179,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 300 µmol/L/16HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTXCYAC 271,94,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 300 µmol/L/15MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 249,178,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/6HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 249,178,2010
In Vitro/mraInhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/24HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 245,352,2010
In Vitro/mraInhibitor Concentration Low: 300 µmol/L/24HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 245,352,2010
inhalation/cat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 70 mg/m3/10MNTIS** PB158-508
inhalation/Dog lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 70 mg/m3/10MNTIS** PB158-508
inhalation/domestic animal lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 190 mg/m3/10MNTIS** PB158-508
inhalation/guinea pig lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 200 mg/m3/10MNTIS** PB158-508
inhalation/guinea pig lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1580 mg/m3/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TXAPA9 241,154,2009
inhalation/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 630 µg/kg/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TXAPA9 241,154,2009
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 2200 mg/m3/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 241,154,2009
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.6 mg/m3/10MEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Eye: Other eye effects
MUREAV 678,1,2009
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.013 mg/m3/8HEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Eye: Other eye effects
MUREAV 678,1,2009
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 23 ppm/10MNTIS** PB214-270
inhalation/monkey lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 80 mg/m3/10MNTIS** PB158-508
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 3.9 mg/m3/10MTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 2.7 mg/m3/30MTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 2.1 mg/m3/1HTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 530 µg/m3/4HTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 270 µg/m3/8HTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 120 mg/m3/10MNTIS** PB158-508
inhalation/rabbit lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 280 mg/m3/10MNTIS** PB158-508
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 100 mg/m3/10MNTIS** PB158-508
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 5.6 mg/m3/4HTOVEFN (5),31,2002
inhalation/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.56 mg/kgTOVEFN (5),31,2002
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (75 percent kill): 6.1 mg/m3/4HTOVEFN (5),31,2002
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (25 percent kill): 4.8 mg/m3/4HBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction
TOVEFN (5),31,2002
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (25 percent kill): 4.8 mg/m3/4HLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Hemorrhage
TOVEFN (5),31,2002
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (25 percent kill): 4.8 mg/m3/4HNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOVEFN (5),31,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 µg/m3/30MBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countTOXID9 -,129,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: >10 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 180S,S35,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXCYAC 231,30,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 231,30,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 231,30,2007
intratracheal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.73 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchiolar constriction, including asthma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
INHTE5 16,537,2004
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 250,245,2011
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 248,89,2010
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 248,89,2010
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases
TXAPA9 248,89,2010
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 263,41,2009
intratracheal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.82 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction
TOVEFN (5),31,2002
intratracheal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.82 mg/kgLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Hemorrhage
TOVEFN (5),31,2002
intratracheal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.82 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOVEFN (5),31,2002
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 µg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NTIS** PB158-507
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3.3 mg/kgENTOX* ,706,2005
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1100 µg/kgJPETAB 93,1,1948
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg/3MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 72,163,2003
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 700 µg/kgJPETAB 93,1,1948
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CRTOEC 18,28,2005
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,389,2004
ocular/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 0.31 mL/kgEye: Corneal damageTOXID9 1,99,2001
oral/human lethal dose (50 percent kill): 700 µg/kgJTEHF8 59,471,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.83 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Luekopenia
TXAPA9 202,180,2005
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 8.1 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Luekopenia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 202,180,2005
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17 mg/kgJTEHF8 59,471,2000
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 2.4 mg/kgTXAPA9 202,180,2005
skin/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 mg/kgNTIS** PB158-507
skin/domestic animal lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kgNTIS** PB158-507
skin/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 mg/kgNTIS** PB158-507
skin/human lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgJTEHF8 59,471,2000
skin/human lowest published lethal dose: 64 mg/kgOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
WHOTAC -,24,1970
skin/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 92 mg/kgJPETAB 93,1,1948
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1600 µg/kgSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, otherTOXID9 72,163,2003
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3200 µg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTOXID9 44,159,2005
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.7 mg/kgSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritativeTXAPA9 200,40,2004
skin/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 4.8 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Luekopenia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 202,180,2005
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mg/kgSkin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 78,389,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 mg/kgSkin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)TOXID9 44,451,2005
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7812.5 µg/kgSkin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JAPTO* 24,107,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kgSkin: After topical application: Corrosive

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 78,356,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.67 mg/kg/6HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JAPTO* 26,239,2006
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.67 mg/kg/72HSkin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
JAPTO* 26,239,2006
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 mg/kgSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritative

Immunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 234,156,2009
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgENTOX* -,174,2005
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 40 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NTIS** PB158-507
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NTIS** PB158-507
skin/rat lowest published lethal dose: 2.4 mg/kgTXAPA9 202,180,2005
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 18 mg/kgENTOX* -,174,2005
subcutaneous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NTIS** PB158-507
subcutaneous/domestic animal lethal dose (50 percent kill): 40 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NTIS** PB158-507
subcutaneous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NTIS** PB158-507
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.83 mg/kgBlood: LuekopeniaTXAPA9 202,180,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9.6 mg/kgBlood: Luekopenia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 202,180,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 13.7 mg/kgBlood: Luekopenia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 202,180,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NTIS** PB158-507
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 9.7 mg/kgINJPD2 40,114,2008
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 19.4 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
INJPD2 40,114,2008
subcutaneous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NTIS** PB158-507
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1500 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
CNRMAW 25,141,1947
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TOVEFN (6),6,2006
subcutaneous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 3.4 mg/kgTXAPA9 202,180,2005
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5.5 mg/kgTOVEFN -,9,2008

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3/6H/52W- intermittentEye: Corneal damageNTIS** AD-A011-260
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/14D- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Blood: Hemorrhage
JTEHF8 59,471,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 19500 µg/kg/13W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJJATDK 16,5,1996
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8.505 mg/kg/12W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TXAPA9 240,208,2009
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 17.01 mg/kg/12W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 240,208,2009
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 34.02 mg/kg/12W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXAPA9 240,208,2009
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kg/4D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TOVEFN -,9,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kg/13D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOVEFN -,9,2008

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMSUDL 7,259,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMSUDL 7,259,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMSUDL 7,259,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 184,116,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMCPT* 2,151,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWSUOPH* 41,461,1997
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 214,198,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCPEMM* 3,239,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,319,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 214,221,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,174,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCLPH* 19,713,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWSIMEJ* 48,392,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTCWA* 2,93,
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCCACL* 21,707,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 9,173,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 263,3,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 263,9,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 263,12,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 263,70,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 31,608,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 733,14,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 25,335,2010

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN1 carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENGroup B Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDcarc 1, JAN2011

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB2004/100006)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: TRP reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-reciprocal translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: L5178Y cells in vitro-TK test; N crassa-reversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
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