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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Phthalic acid, benzyl butyl ester

RTECS #

TH9990000

CAS #

85-68-7; 58128-78-2

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

312.39

Molecular Formula

C19H20O4

Synonyms

1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl phenylmethyl ester
AI3-14777
BBP
Benzyl butyl phthalate
Benzyl n-butyl phthalate
Benzyl-butylester kyseliny ftalove (Czech)
Butyl benzyl phthalate
Butyl phenylmethyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate
n-Butyl benzyl phthalate
NCI-C54375
Palatinol BB
Santicizer 160
Sicol 160
Unimoll BB

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
skin /human 10%HPV349 -,-,2001

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
morphological transformembryo/hamster2 mg/LMUREAV 356,85,1996
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium2000 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 44,329,2004

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 21 gm/kg (14D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
TOXID9 4,136,1984
oral/rat 16400 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** PB90-115346
oral/rat 16400 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** PB90-115346
oral/rat 4900 mg/kg (1-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
JJATDK 12,57,1992
oral/rat 154 gm/kg (10W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
NTPTR* NTP-TR-458,1997
oral/rat 4500 mg/kg (0-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
REPTED 12,127,1998
oral/rat 1500 mg/kg (6D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
JJATDK 19,357,1999
oral/mouse 9100 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
NTIS** PB91-129999
oral/mouse 23300 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleNTIS** PB91-129999
oral/rat 11600 mg/kg (2W pre-22D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemEVHPAZ 103,1136,1995
oral/rat 369.8 mg/kg (1-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
RTOPDW 26,330,1997
oral/rat 119 gm/kg (14W male/14W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
REPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat 24 gm/kg (14W male/14W pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
REPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat 24 gm/kg (14W male/14W pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
REPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat 5 gm/kg (14W male/14W pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalREPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat 2700 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
REPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat 5800 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)REPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat 7500 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, earREPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat 11250 mg/kg (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
REPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat 5700 µg/kg (2W pre-22W after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
EVHPAZ 103,1136,1995
oral/rat 11.3 mg/kg (10W pre-22D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
EVHPAZ 103,1136,1995
oral/rat 1100 mg/kg (1-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
REPTED 8,231,1994
oral/rat 12.8 gm/kg (6-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat 43 gm/kg (1-29D male/14D pre-6D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat 85 gm/kg (1-29D male/14D pre-6D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat 20000 mg/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat 8000 mg/kg (6-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat 11 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesNTIS** #PB90-115346/AS
oral/rat 16.4 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** #PB90-115346/AS
oral/mouse 9.1 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
NTIS** #PB91-129999
oral/mouse 23.3 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** #PB91-129999
oral/rat 3000 mg/kg (15-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
REPTED 16,71,2002
oral/rat 1500 mg/kg (15-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemREPTED 16,71,2002
oral/rat 5000 mg/kg (14-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),272,2003
oral/mouse 562 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)REPTED 17,575,2003
oral/mouse 1.12 gm/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathREPTED 17,575,2003
oral/mouse 1686 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)REPTED 17,575,2003
oral/rat 1687 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
REPTED 17,575,2003
oral/rat 42.8 gm/kg (7D male/7D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
REPTED 18,1,2004
oral/rat 750 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
REPTED 18,1,2004
oral/rat 750 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemREPTED 18,1,2004
oral/rat 9000 mg/kg (7D male/7D prior to copulation/22D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesREPTED 18,1,2004
oral/rat 9000 mg/kg (14-22D preg/3D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
REPTED 18,1,2004
oral/rat 7500 mg/kg (1-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 44,227,2005
oral/rat 3750 mg/kg (14-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TOXID9 78,282,2004
oral/rat 6750 mg/kg (7-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
HPV349 -,-,2001
oral/rat 11000 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
HPV349 -,-,2001
oral/mouse 9100 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
HPV349 -,-,2001
oral/rabbit 390 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
HPV349 -,-,2001
unreported route/rat 41250 mg/kg (14D preg-3D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 60,225,2001
unreported route/rat 2500 mg/kg (14-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 60,225,2001

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 433 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
NTPTR* NTP-TR-213,1982
oral/rat toxic dose: 437 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
EVHPAZ 65,271,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 364 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-458,1997
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 117600 mg/kg/28W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NTIS** PB83-118398
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360500 mg/kg/103W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTIS** PB98-131089
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 865200 mg/kg/103W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
NTIS** PB98-131089
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 524160 mg/kg/104W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTIS** PB98-131014

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/jrcInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/L/3WIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 248,111,2010
In Vitro/jtiInhibitor Concentration Low: 250 µmol/L/40HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXAPA9 244,308,2010
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >6700 mg/m3/4HHPV349 -,-,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3160 mg/kgHPV349 -,-,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2656 mg/kgHPV349 -,-,2001
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 13750 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Withdrawal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
GTPZAB 24(3),25,1980
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1124 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 17,575,2003
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4170 mg/kgHPV349 -,-,2001
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 2.3 gm/kgREPTED 17,575,2003
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2330 mg/kgHPV349 -,-,2001
skin/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6700 mg/kgGISAAA 39(6),25,1974
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >10000 mg/kgHPV349 -,-,2001
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6700 mg/kgGISAAA 39(6),25,1974
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 13700 µg/kgGTPZAB 32(7),52,1988

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2100 mg/m3/6H/4W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TIHEEC 3,79,1987
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 789 mg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
TIHEEC 3,79,1987
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2100 mg/m3/28D- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
HPV349 -,,2001
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 112500 mg/kg/90D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainHPV349 -,,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 79380 mg/kg/90D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainHPV349 -,,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9.1 gm/kg/10D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTIS** #PB91-129999
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 23.3 gm/kg/10D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
NTIS** #PB91-129999
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 23.3 gm/kg/10D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeNTIS** #PB91-129999
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 273 gm/kg/13W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTPTR* NTP-TR-213,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14100 mg/kg/141D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
REPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70500 mg/kg/141D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
REPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9800 mg/kg/14W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Endocrine: Other changes
REPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 49000 mg/kg/14W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
REPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10500 mg/kg/21D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
REPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32000 mg/kg/64D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
REPTED 14,513,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16000 mg/kg/10D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
REPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
REPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2700 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleenREPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8700 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
REPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18750 mg/kg/15D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5250 mg/kg/15D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightREPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4050 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesREPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6750 mg/kg/15D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weightREPTED 14,417,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 117600 mg/kg/28W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
NTIS** PB83-118398
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/7D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
REPTED 8,231,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8000 mg/kg/8D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13000 mg/kg/20D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 29000 mg/kg/29D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)TXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)TXCYAC 99,191,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 gm/kg/10D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeNTIS** #PB90-115346/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 11 gm/kg/10D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** #PB90-115346/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.7 gm/kg/7D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)NTIS** #PB90-115346/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.4 gm/kg/4D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeNTIS** #PB90-115346/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16.4 gm/kg/10D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weightNTIS** #PB90-115346/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
REPTED 16,71,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/14D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
FCTOD7 42,107,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Liver: Other changes
FCTOD7 42,107,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightFCTOD7 42,107,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42750 mg/kg/57D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightREPTED 18,1,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14000 mg/kg/4W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TERP2* -,310,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 63000 mg/kg/42D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainHPV349 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 67500 mg/kg/90D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weightHPV349 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 101250 mg/kg/90D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
HPV349 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 257894 mg/kg/182D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
HPV349 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13419 mg/kg/21D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
HPV349 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22400 mg/kg/14D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
HPV349 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 gm/kg/14D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXCYAC 35,189,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 51450 mg/kg/21D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
NTIS** OTS0536510
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 56 gm/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Blood: Hemorrhage

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TIHEEC 3,79,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 68250 mg/kg/91D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weightJACTDZ 11,1,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 38402 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
TIHEEC 3,79,1987
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 60000 µL/kg/19D- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral responseJAPTO* 29,118,2009

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 73,115,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 29,193,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 29,193,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 73,115,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 73,115,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJACTDZ 11,1,1992
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 197,178,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 36,695,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 25,192,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 22,291,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRTOPDW 53,90,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFESTAS 90,911,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,363,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,118,2011

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 3 mg/m3;KZW 5 mg/m3, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 3 mg/m3, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 3 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 3 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, OCT2007

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 80249; Number of Industries 158; Total Number of Facilities 27154; Number of Occupations 119; Total Number of Employees Exposed 331841; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 59743
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 80249; Number of Industries 93; Total Number of Facilities 9594; Number of Occupations 74; Total Number of Employees Exposed 66289

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-8845
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9016;8EHQ-0892-9174
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);clear evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);equivocal evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);no evidence:mouse
NTP Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);some evidence:rat NTPTR* NTP-TR-458,1997
On EPA IRIS database
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