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Phenanthridinium, 3,8 - diamino - 5 - ethyl - 6 - phenyl - , bromide

RTECS #: SF7950000

CAS #: 1239-45-8


UPDATE: November 2007 MW: 394.35 MF: C21H20N3•Br


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  4. REVIEWS:
  5. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  6. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  7. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 2,7 - Diamino - 10 - ethyl - 9 - phenylphenanthridinium bromide
  2. 2,7 - Diamino - 9 - phenyl - 10 - ethylphenanthridinium bromide
  3. 2,7 - Diamino - 9 - phenylphenanthridine ethobromide
  4. 3,8 - Diamino - 5 - ethyl - 6 - phenylphenanthridinium bromide
  1. Dromilac
  2. Ethidium bromide
  3. Homidium bromide
  4. RD 1572


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 10 mg/L CHROAU 47,157,1974
cytogenetic analysis hamster fibroblast 10 mg/L CHROAU 47,157,1974
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 41 mg/L GMCRDC 27,95,1981
cytogenetic analysis mouse fibroblast 1 mg/L MUREAV 33,417,1975
cytogenetic analysis mouse leukocyte 5 mg/L VAAZA2 27,79,1978
cytogenetic analysis mouse other cell types 10 mg/L CHROAU 47,157,1974
cytogenetic analysis non-mammalian species other cell types 10 mg/L NATUAS 222,193,1969
cytogenetic analysis non-mammalian species other cell types 10 mmol/L AAMMAU 62,365,1973
dominant lethal test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
30 µmol/L MUREAV 97,203,1982
DNA adduct wild bird leukocyte 37,500 nmol/L BBRCA9 46,1399,1972
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 15 µmol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adduct human fibroblast 2 µmol/L CBINA8 11,101,1975
DNA adduct rat liver 200 µmol/L ECREAL 100,223,1976
DNA adduct Saccharomyes cerevisiae 50 µmol/L JBCHA3 249,6617,1974
DNA damage domestic bird leukocyte 1 mmol/L NNBYA7 243,20,1973
DNA damage domestic bird liver 1 mmol/L NNBYA7 243,20,1973
DNA damage domestic bird other cell types 1 mmol/L NNBYA7 243,20,1973
DNA damage hamster fibroblast 10 mg/L/30 minute- continuous ECREAL 99,7,1976
DNA damage hamster lung 15.7 µmol/L/3 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 503,21,2002
DNA damage human leukocyte 5 mg/L NATUAS 263,679,1976
DNA damage human mammary gland 0.44 mg/L/24 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA damage mouse Ascites tumor 117 µmol/L BBACAQ 374,96,1974
DNA damage mouse mammary gland 100 nmol/L JOBIAO 84,145,1978
DNA damage non-mammalian species 1 mole BBACAQ 561,77,1979
DNA damage other microorganisms 100 µg/L ECREAL 55,248,1969
DNA damage other microorganisms 2 mg/L ECREAL 55,248,1969
DNA damage other microorganisms 600 mg/L JMOBAK 33,141,1968
DNA damage other microorganisms 300 mg/L JMOBAK 77,479,1973
DNA damage other microorganisms 25 µmol/L/3 hour MUREAV 572,84,2005
DNA damage rat other cell types 40 mg/L CBINA8 77,25,1991
DNA inhibition Euglena gracilis 1 mg/L JNCSAI 13,567,1973
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 40 µmol/L MUREAV 92,427,1982
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg MUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA inhibition mouse other cell types 500 µmol/L EXPEAM 40,869,1984
DNA inhibition mouse leukocyte 500 µmol/L BCPCA6 20,2921,1971
DNA inhibition mouse lymphocyte 100 µmol/L BCPCA6 21,1977,1972
DNA inhibition non-mammalian species other cell types 50 mg/L NATUAS 222,193,1969
DNA inhibition other microorganisms 2 mg/L MGGEAE 150,301,1977
DNA inhibition other microorganisms 100 µg/L NNBYA7 232,143,1971
DNA inhibition other microorganisms 2,500 µg/L CYTBAI 26,75,1979
DNA inhibition rat liver 500 nmol/L MUREAV 113,145,1983
DNA repair Bacillus subtilis 6 µg/disc MUREAV 97,1,1982
DNA repair Escherichia coli 250 µg/disc MUREAV 41,61,1976
DNA repair Salmonella typhimurium 1 pph AGACBH 4,286,1974
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 2,500 nmol/L CRNGDP 10,393,1989
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 10 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step) CHDDAT 269,1708,1969
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 50 µg/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 74,113,1980
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 10 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step) JOBAAY 126,959,1976
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 5 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) JDREAF 55,266,1976
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 25 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step) CUMIDD 8,201,1983
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 200 ng/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 127,31,1984
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 100 ng/plate (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 439,37,1999
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 5 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) CPBTAL 34,1735,1986
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 6.25 mg/L/16 hour MUTAEX 20,105,2004
mutation in microorganisms Schizosaccharomyces pombe 2 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step) MGGEAE 144,75,1976
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
63,400 nmol/L MUTAEX 4,17,1989
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 1 pph AGACBH 4,286,1974
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 75 µmol/L CRNGDP 15,2303,1994
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster ovary 45 mg/L MUREAV 94,449,1982
other mutation test systems Escherichia coli 500 µmol/L BCPCA6 20,2921,1971
other mutation test systems mouse leukocyte 500 µmol/L BCPCA6 20,2921,1971
other mutation test systems mouse lymphocyte 100 µmol/L BCPCA6 21,1977,1972
other mutation test systems other microorganisms 50 mg/L IJBBBQ 19,285,1982
other mutation test systems Salmonella typhimurium 50 mg/L MUREAV 192,239,1987
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 10 µg/plate CNREA8 43,2819,1983
sister chromatid exchange parenteral
chicken
847 µg/kg 47JMAE -,137,1982
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 10 mg/L CBTOE2 2,379,1986
sister chromatid exchange intravenous
mouse
80 mg/kg JJMCAQ 38,207,1985
sister chromatid exchange rat liver 10 mg/L CBTOE2 2,379,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
3 mmol/L MUREAV 97,203,1982
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
3 mmol/L MUREAV 138,169,1984
specific locus test hamster ovary 10 mg/L/24 hour MUREAV 602,14,2006


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 µg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath BJMRDK 35,99,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent CNREA8 34,2699,1974
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 110 mg/kg N/R ATMPA2 46,285,1952


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 44,163,2004


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

N/R N/R N/R


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: A1168;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 17;
Number of Occupations 1;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 34
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: A1168;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 7;
Number of Occupations 3;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 21


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro mammalian nonhuman micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: E coli polA without S9; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae gene conversion; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Cytogenetics-male germ cell
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
Used as an antitrypansomal agent
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; selected, October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

47JMAE "Cytogenetic Assays of Environmental Mutagens," Hsu, T.C., ed., Totowa, NJ, Allanheld, Osmun & Co., 1982
AAMMAU Archives d'Anatomie Microscopique et de Morphologie Experimentale. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.36-76, 1947-1987. For publisher information, see BSTME2.
AGACBH Agents and Actions, A Swiss Journal of Pharmacology. (Birkhaeuser Verlag, POB 133, CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1969/70-
ATMPA2 Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. (Grune & Stratton, Inc., POB 6280, Duluth, MN 55806) V.1- 1907-
BBACAQ Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1947-
BBRCA9 Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
BCPCA6 Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1958-
BJMRDK Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. (Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, 141000 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil) V.14- 1981-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CBTOE2 Cell Biology and Toxicology. (Princeton Scientific Pub., Inc., 301 N. Harrison St., CN 5279, Princeton, NJ 08540) V.1- 1984-
CHDDAT Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie D: Sciences Naturelles. (Paris, France) V.262-291, 1966-80. For publisher information, see CRASEV.
CHROAU Chromosoma. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1939-
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CPBTAL Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Japan Pub. Trading Co., USA, 1255 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103) V.6- 1958-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CUMIDD Current Microbiology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1978-
CYTBAI Cytobios. (Faculty Press, 88 Regent St., Cambridge, UK) V.1- 1969-
ECREAL Experimental Cell Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.10- 1950-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
EXPEAM Experientia. (Birkhaeuser Verlag, POB 133, CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1945-
GMCRDC Gann Monograph on Cancer Research. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) No. 11- 1971-
IJBBBQ Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.8- 1971-
JBCHA3 Journal of Biological Chemistry. (428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1905-
JDREAF Journal of Dental Research. (International Assoc. for Dental Research, 734 15th St., NW, Suite 809, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1919-
JJMCAQ Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology. (National Institute of Health, 2-chome, Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141, Japan) V.5- 1952-
JMOBAK Journal of Molecular Biology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
JNCSAI Journal of Cell Science. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 1966-
JOBAAY Journal of Bacteriology. (American Soc. for Microbiology, 1913 I St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.1- 1916-
JOBIAO Journal of Biochemistry (Tokyo). (Japanese Biochemical Soc., c/o Japan Academic Soc. Center, 2-4-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1922-
MGGEAE Molecular and General Genetics. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.99- 1967-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NATUAS Nature. (Nature Subscription Dept., POB 1018, Manasguan, NJ 08736) V.1- 1869-
NNBYA7 Nature (London), New Biology. (Basingstoke, Hants., UK) V.229-246, 1971-73. For publisher information, see NATUAS.
VAAZA2 Virchows Archiv, Abteilung B: Cell Pathology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1968-

Used as an antitrypansomal agent

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Human Data

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