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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

2H-1,3,2-Oxazaphosphorine, 2-(bis(2-chloroethyl)amino)tetrahydro-, 2-oxide

RTECS #

RP5950000

CAS #

50-18-0

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

261.11

Molecular Formula

C7H15Cl2N2O2P

Synonyms

2-(Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino)-2H-1,3,2-oxazaphosphorine 2-oxide
2H-1,3,2-Oxazaphosphorin-2-amine, N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)tetrahydro-, 2-oxide (9CI)
2-H-1,3,2-Oxazaphosphorinane
ASTA B518
B 518
Bis(2-chloroethyl)phosphoramide-cyclic propanolamide ester
CB 4564
Clafen
Claphene
CP
Cyclophosphamid
Cyclophosphamide
Cyclophosphamidum
Cyclophosphan
Cyclophosphane
Cyclophosphanum
Cyclophosphoramide
Cyclostin
Cyklofosfamid (Czech)
CYP
Cytophosphan
Cytoxan
Endoxan
Endoxana
Endoxanal
Endoxan-asta
Endoxane
Genoxal
Genuxal
N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-N',O-propylenephosphoric acid ester diamide
N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)tetrahydro-2H-1,3,2-oxazaphosphorin-2-amine 2-oxide
N,N-Bis-(beta-chloraethyl)-N',O-propylen-phosphorsaeure-ester-diamid (German)
N,N-Bis(beta-chloroethyl)-N',O-trimethylenephosphoric acid ester diamide
N,N-Di(2-chloroethyl)-N,O-propylene-phosphoric acid ester diamide
NCI-C04900
NSC 26271
Phosphorodiamidic acid, N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(3-hydroxypropyl)-, intramol. ester
Procytox
RCRA waste number U058
Sendoxan
SK 20501
Zyklophosphamid (German)

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
body fluid assaySaccharomyes cerevisiae/human6200 µg/kgMUREAV 21,257,1973
body fluid assaySalmonella typhimurium/human14 mg/kgCANCAR 38,1253,1976
body fluid assaySalmonella typhimurium/rat50 mg/kgENMUDM 1,155,1979
body fluid assayembryo/rat100 mg/kgTOLED5 28,23,1985
body fluid assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse50 mg/kgENMUDM 2,521,1980
body fluid assaylymphocyte/mouse1 gm/kgSOGEBZ 12,1425,1976
body fluid assaylymphocyte/rabbit20 mg/kgBEBMAE 101,461,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisparenteral/chicken8 µg/kg47JMAE -,137,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisintravenous/rabbit20 mg/kgBEBMAE 101,461,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/guinea pig25 mg/kgMUREAV 268,211,1992
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mammal (species unspecified)25 mg/kgJANSAG 39,142,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified)50 mg/kgGNKAA5 17,1639,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisintravenous/monkey18400 µg/kgGNKAA5 22,1213,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/hamster1 mg/m3/2H-continuousMUREAV 203,1,1988
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster100 µmol/LARGEAR 52,97,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster20 mg/LMUREAV 223,191,1989
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/hamster320 mg/kg/2W- intermittentMUREAV 7,99,1969
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/hamster10 mg/LCNREA8 38,2922,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster10 mmol/LMUREAV 51,397,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/hamster3300 µg/kgARTODN 38,35,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/mouse150 mg/kgGNTKDF 11,203,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse10 mg/kgMUREAV 140,49,1984
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/mouse50 mg/LCNREA8 38,2922,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisintravenous/mouse45 mg/kgMUREAV 60,329,1979
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/mouse35 mg/LMUREAV 252,221,1991
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse1 mg/m3/2H-continuousMUREAV 203,1,1988
Cytogenetic Analysisliver/rat2 gm/LMUREAV 64,329,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat3300 µg/kgARTODN 38,35,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat9 mg/kgARZNAD 29,1871,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisintravenous/rat3300 µg/kgGISAAA 42(8),27,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/human60 mg/kg/8W- intermittentHUHEAS 29,100,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/child4 mg/kg/4WHUMAA7 22,221,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human1 mmol/LMUREAV 56,101,1977
Cytogenetic AnalysisHeLa cell/human210 mg/L/48HHUMAA7 4,362,1967
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human10 µg/L/72HARTODN 46,61,1980
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/human50 µg/LMUREAV 11,258,1971
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/grasshopper200 µmol/LMUREAV 119,71,1983
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/grasshopper20 µmol/LCGCGBR 33,114,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/non-mammalian species15600 µg/kgMUREAV 172,165,1986
Cytogenetic Analysismultiple/non-mammalian species500 µg/LMUREAV 319,223,1993
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/hamster10 gm/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 472,75,2000
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse20 mg/kgCALEDQ 144,137,1999
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human10 mg/L/18HIJTOFN 19,69,2000
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human50 nmol/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 494,13,2001
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human28 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 497,89,2001
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster20 mg/L/4HEMMUEG 36,13,2000
Cytogenetic Analysissperm/human20 mg/L/120M (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 504,183,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/other insects2 gm/LMUREAV 520,141,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster0.009 mmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 498,117,2001
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat30 mg/kg (+enzymatic activation step)JAPTO* 21,449,2001
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster5 mg/L/18H (+enzymatic activation step)JTSCDR 26,243,2001
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human0.015 mmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 536,27,2003
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse270 mg/kg/10D- intermittentFATOAO 55,49,1992
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/hamster30 mg/kgMUREAV 537,183,2003
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human28 mg/L/2HMUREAV 535,161,2003
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human0.02 mmol/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 542,117,2003
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human5 mg/L/22H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 558,93,2004
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster42.9 µmol/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 540,29,2003
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster0.66 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)TOLED5 136,87,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster50 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)TCMUD8 23,137,2003
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/mouse2 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)TCMUD8 23,137,2003
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human6.25 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)RTOPDW 39,256,2004
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human0.25 mg/L/20H (+enzymatic activation step)RTOPDW 35,255,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster50 mg/L/24H (+enzymatic activation step)TCMUD8 23(Suppl 1),137,2003
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human30 mg/L/48H (+enzymatic activation step)TXCYAC 200,39,2004
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster5 mg/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 44,354,2006
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/rat6 mg/kgMUREAV 577S,1,2005
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/human50 µmol/L/2HMUREAV 649,45,2008
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/non-mammalian species0.1 mmol/L/3HMUTAEX 14,375,1999
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster1.4 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 699,47,2010
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/mouse10 mg/kgTOVEFN -,15,2009
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat80 mg/kg/2D- intermittentFCTOD7 48,2073,2010
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human8 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 48,3481,2010
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster10 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 49,3343,2011
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster10 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 50,854,2012
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster10 mg/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 50,1468,2012
DNA adductAscites tumor/mouse120 µmol/kgCNREA8 33,1048,1973
DNA adductoral/Dog6600 µg/kgCRNGDP 12,1483,1991
DNA Damageleukocyte/mouse1 mmol/LCTRRDO 62,23,1978
DNA Damageintravenous/mouse160 mg/kgCNREA8 49,3452,1989
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse500 µmol/LMUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse20 mg/kgTCMUD8 2,47,1982
DNA Damageunreported route/mouse60 mg/kgPACHAS 42,209,1975
DNA Damageintravenous/human750 mg/kgCNREA8 49,3452,1989
DNA Damageleukocyte/human500 µmol/LMUREAV 346,49,1995
DNA Damageother cell types/human900 µmol/LMUREAV 468,213,2000
DNA Damage/Bacillus subtilis2 mg/discPMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms300 µmol/LMUREAV 368,235,1996
DNA Damagesubcutaneous/mouse15 mg/kgCRNGDP 10,83,1989
DNA Damageoral/rat80 mg/kg/2D- intermittentFCTOD7 48,2073,2010
DNA Damageoral/Drosophila melanogaster100 mg/L/48H-continuousMUREAV 721,142,2011
DNA Damageoral/mouse50 mg/kg/5D- intermittentMUREAV 653,134,2008
DNA Damageother cell types/human500 µmol/L/12HMUTAEX 28,515,2013
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/rat150 mg/kg/19D- intermittentBCLPT* 105,236,2009
DNA Damageother cell types/human200 µmol/L/24HMUTAEX 25,555,2010
DNA Damageoral/rat75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 722,7,2011
DNA Damageoral/mouse25 mg/kgMUTAEX 20,279,2005
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/rat40 mg/kgMUREAV 606,85,2006
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse120 mg/kg/3D- intermittentINJPD2 39,265,2007
DNA Damageovary/hamster10 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 605,7,2006
DNA Damageovary/human1 mmol/LMUREAV 575,17,2005
DNA Damageoral/rat150 mg/kg/10WTXCYAC 217,71,2006
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human0.25 mmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 540,43,2003
DNA inhibitionintravenous/rat75 mg/kgMUREAV 68,275,1979
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human600 µmol/L/1H-continuousJEPTDQ 2(1),65,1978
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human200 mg/LCNREA8 42,3676,1982
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse150 mg/kgBJDEAZ 94,1,1976
DNA inhibitionsubcutaneous/mouse80 mg/kgBCPCA6 22,3181,1973
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis1 gm/LEVSRBT 24,19,1981
DNA repair/Escherichia coli1250 µg/plateNULSAK 28,159,1985
DNA repair/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,502,1981
DNA repairother cell types/human1000 µmol/L/12HMUTAEX 28,515,2013
Dominant Lethal Testsubcutaneous/mouse10 mg/kgTOVEFN -,15,2009
Dominant Lethal Testintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgTXCYAC 206,169,2005
Dominant Lethal Testoral/rat50 mg/kgMUREAV 48,267,1977
Dominant Lethal Testoral/mouse160 mg/kgMUREAV 26,427,1974
Dominant Lethal Testunreported route/mouse40 mg/kgEESADV 3,122,1979
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae500 µmol/LMUREAV 111,295,1983
gene conversion and mitotic recombinationoral/Drosophila melanogaster0.5 mmol/L/48HMUTAEX 16,385,2001
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1000 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 49,1303,2011
heritable translocation testoral/Drosophila melanogaster8000 ppmENMUDM 7,349,1985
heritable translocation testintraperitoneal/mouse350 mg/kgREBPAT 13,1,1976
host-mediated assayAscites tumor/mouse10 mg/kgTCMUD8 10,321,1990
host-mediated assaylung/mouse1600 µg/kgMUREAV 64,259,1979
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse200 mg/kgBIZNAT 96,151,1977
host-mediated assaySerratia marcescens/mouse870 mg/kg/2HMGGEAE 117,197,1972
host-mediated assaySaccharomyes cerevisiae/mouse225 mg/kgMUREAV 111,295,1983
host-mediated assaylymphocyte/mouse150 mg/kgENVRAL 13,267,1977
host-mediated assaySaccharomyes cerevisiae/rat500 mg/kgFCTOD7 49,1303,2011
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse140 mg/kg/2D-continuousJOETD7 135,586,2011
micronucleus testovary/hamster20 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 25,33,2010
micronucleus testother cell types/human1.8 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 746,29,2012
micronucleus testoral/mouse50 mg/kg/5D- intermittentMUREAV 653,134,2008
micronucleus testother cell types/mouse10 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 49,439,2008
micronucleus testlymphocyte/mouse10 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 49,439,2008
micronucleus testoral/mouse25 mg/kgEMMUEG 49,727,2008
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human0.1 mmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 19,75,2004
micronucleus testoral/rat11 mg/kg/11D- intermittentMUREAV 626,26,2007
micronucleus testother cell types/mouse9.57 µmol/LMUREAV 655,4,2008
micronucleus testoral/mouse75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 649,101,2008
micronucleus testliver/human800 µmol/L/22HTOXIA6 49,1219,2007
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse120 mg/kg/3D- intermittentINJPD2 39,265,2007
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat600 mg/kg/3W- intermittentETOPFR 26,336,2008
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat5 mg/kgMUREAV 680,31,2009
micronucleus testunreported route/rat112 mg/kg/28DMUREAV 680,31,2009
micronucleus testunreported route/rat16 mg/kg/4DMUREAV 680,31,2009
micronucleus testoral/rat30 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 722,7,2011
micronucleus testoral/mouse80 mg/kg/2D- intermittentFCTOD7 48,2073,2010
micronucleus testother cell types/human100 µmol/L/24HMUTAEX 25,555,2010
micronucleus testliver/human2 gm/L/48HMUREAV 677,1,2009
micronucleus testother cell types/mouse1.5 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 702,163,2010
micronucleus testsubcutaneous/mouse10 mg/kgTOVEFN -,15,2009
micronucleus testother cell types/human12 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 517,39,2002
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human28 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 497,89,2001
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse120 mg/kg/3DMUREAV 494,41,2001
micronucleus testoral/mouse40 mg/kg/48H- intermittentJOETD7 77,30,2001
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human28 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 497,177,2001
micronucleus testoral/mouse40 mg/kg/2D- intermittent (-enzymatic activation step)JAPTO* 20,491,2000
micronucleus testoral/mouse20 mg/kg (-enzymatic activation step)JAPTO* 20,491,2000
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster10 mg/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 493,75,2001
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse40 mg/kg/2DTOLED5 121,159,2001
micronucleus testoral/rat1.4 mg/kgMUREAV 478,211,2001
micronucleus testother cell types/hamster17.5 µmol/L/3H (+/-enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 39,843,2001
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species37.5 mg/L/24H-continuousEMMUEG 44,436,2004
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human30 mg/L/48H (+enzymatic activation step)TXCYAC 200,39,2004
micronucleus testoral/rat20 mg/kg/4DMUREAV 577S,1,2005
micronucleus testoral/rat50 mg/kg/5D- intermittentEMMUEG 44,174,2004
micronucleus testparenteral/rat25 mg/kgMUREAV 560,147,2004
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster2.5 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 514,133,2002
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human5 mg/L/30H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 558,93,2004
micronucleus testmammary gland/mouse2.5 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 540,153,2003
micronucleus testother cell types/other fish2 mg/L/3DMUREAV 538,81,2003
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human100 µmol/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 544,279,2003
micronucleus testoral/mouse100 mg/kg/2DMUREAV 557,85,2004
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human28 mg/L/2HMUREAV 535,161,2003
micronucleus testlung/hamster2 mg/LMUREAV 222,63,1989
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human800 µmol/LMUREAV 227,167,1989
micronucleus testtestis/non-mammalian species1 µmol/LMUREAV 203,125,1988
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species5 ppmMUREAV 298,25,1992
micronucleus testmultiple/other fish5 mg/LMUREAV 438,155,1999
micronucleus testfibroblast/mouse1 mg/LMUREAV 279,217,1992
micronucleus testintravenous/mouse60 µg/kgMUTAEX 4,6,1989
micronucleus testunreported route/mouse20 mg/kgEESADV 3,122,1979
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse5 mg/kgMUREAV 56,311,1978
micronucleus testsubcutaneous/mouse20 mg/kg/24HEXPEAM 36,297,1980
micronucleus testliver/rat10 µmol/LMUREAV 292,213,1993
morphological transformembryo/rat5 mg/LJJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transformembryo/mouse10 mg/LCNREA8 38,2922,1978
morphological transformkidney/hamster80 µg/LBJCAAI 37,873,1978
morphological transformembryo/hamster50 mg/LJJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse10 mg/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 37,231,2001
morphological transformembryo/mouse500 mg/L/72HMUREAV 702,100,2010
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/mouse3 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)TIHEEC 25,5,2009
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster30 mg/L/5H (+/-enzymatic activation step)RTOPDW 35,398,2002
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/human6.25 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)RTOPDW 37,11,2003
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse80 mg/LDCTODJ 1,277,1978
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsliver/hamster5 mmol/LMUREAV 271,79,1992
mutation in microorganismslung/hamster10 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 157,189,1985
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse250 µg/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 223,295,1989
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/human7 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 4,335,1989
mutation in microorganismsfibroblast/human475 nmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)CNREA8 41,1873,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae26700 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 45,309,1977
mutation in microorganisms/Aspergillus nidulans20 mg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 80,265,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Schizosaccharomyces pombe1 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 111,295,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)ENMUDM 6(Suppl 2),1,1984
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli5 mg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 28,405,1975
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli10 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)ARTODN 33,225,1975
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1000 µg/plate/72H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 585,105,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae20000 mg/L/17H (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 582,116,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae2.5 mmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step)TOLED5 136,87,2002
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium500 µg/plate/20M (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 514,19,2002
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium100 µg/plate/48H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 16,523,2001
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.5 mg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)JOETD7 77,30,2001
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae25 mg/L/16HMUTAEX 20,317,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae250 mg/L/18H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 653,63,2008
other mutation test systemsunreported route/mouse150 mg/kgTXCYAC 278,377,2010
other mutation test systemsembryo/chicken3 µgENMUDM 8,241,1986
other mutation test systemsembryo/grasshopper200 µmol/LMUREAV 119,71,1983
other mutation test systemsHeLa cell/human840 mg/LHUMAA7 4,362,1967
other mutation test systemssubcutaneous/mouse80 mg/kgBCPCA6 22,3181,1973
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/mouse20 mg/kgMUREAV 224,105,1989
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli100 µg/plateCNREA8 43,2819,1983
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,468,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster2 mmol/L/24HMUREAV 33,221,1975
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster19200 µmol/LEVSRBT 24,175,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionintraperitoneal/mouse50 mg/kgMUREAV 144,27,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionliver/hamster2 gm/LPMRSDJ 5,397,1985
sister chromatid exchangeliver/hamster26 mg/LMUREAV 207,69,1988
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/hamster1 mg/m3/2H-continuousMUREAV 203,1,1988
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/hamster1 mg/kgARZNAD 29,1871,1979
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster100 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 41,343,1976
sister chromatid exchangeoral/hamster5 mg/kgMUREAV 74,164,1980
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster625 µg/LCRNGDP 1,37,1980
sister chromatid exchangeunreported route/hamster1 mg/kgEESADV 3,122,1979
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/hamster10 mg/LCNREA8 38,2922,1978
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/hamster3 mmol/LMUREAV 93,409,1982
sister chromatid exchangeintravenous/monkey18400 µg/kgGNKAA5 22,1213,1986
sister chromatid exchangekidney/monkey100 µmol/LCNREA8 45,3626,1985
sister chromatid exchangeintravenous/rabbit20 mg/kgBEBMAE 101,461,1986
sister chromatid exchangeparenteral/chicken8 µg/kg47JMAE -,137,1982
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/rabbit35 mg/kgMUREAV 41,333,1976
sister chromatid exchangeparenteral/rabbit35 mg/kgENMUDM 1,176,1979
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/rabbit5 µmol/LTOLED5 7,229,1981
sister chromatid exchangeAscites tumor/mouse15 mg/kgENMUDM 1,177,1979
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/mouse4 mg/LMUREAV 224,465,1989
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/mouse1 mg/m3/2H-continuousMUREAV 203,1,1988
sister chromatid exchangeparenteral/mouse2500 µg/kgMUREAV 57,233,1978
sister chromatid exchangesubcutaneous/mouse5 mg/kgCGCGBR 18,231,1977
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse3 mg/kgCNREA8 44,3820,1984
sister chromatid exchangeintravenous/mouse10 mg/kgENMUDM 2,246,1980
sister chromatid exchangeunreported route/mouse12500 µg/kgNATUAS 260,448,1976
sister chromatid exchangeembryo/mouse10 mg/LCNREA8 38,2922,1978
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/non-mammalian species2600 µg/kgMUREAV 172,165,1986
sister chromatid exchangemultiple/other fish2500 µg/LMUREAV 97,35,1982
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/rat5 µmol/LTOLED5 7,229,1981
sister chromatid exchangeliver/rat1 mg/LTOLED5 13,95,1982
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/rat300 µmol/LMUREAV 93,409,1982
sister chromatid exchangeoral/rat240 mg/kg/10D-continuousENMUDM 7(Suppl 3),79,1985
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/human500 mg/LENMUDM 7(Suppl 3),26,1985
sister chromatid exchangeoral/human31 mg/kgMUREAV 67,289,1979
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 µmol/LPJABDW 56,568,1980
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/human10 µmol/LCNREA8 45,3626,1985
sister chromatid exchangeleukocyte/human1 µmol/LMUREAV 346,49,1995
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human28 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 497,89,2001
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/human12 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 517,39,2002
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster0.009 mmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 498,117,2001
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human1.4 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 497,177,2001
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human50 nmol/L/90M (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 494,13,2001
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human5 mg/L/24H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 558,93,2004
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human0.5 µmol/L/72H (+enzymatic activation step)TCMUD8 23,267,2003
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/rat5 mg/kgTIHEEC 22,65,2006
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human0.005 µmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 19,75,2004
specific locus testintraperitoneal/rat50 mg/kgEMMUEG 43,265,2004
specific locus testintraperitoneal/mouse200 mg/kg/5D- intermittentMUREAV 535,35,2003
specific locus testother cell types/mouse5 mg/L/3H (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 537,183,2003
specific locus testintravenous/human71.4 mg/kgMUTAEX 16,197,2001
specific locus testintraperitoneal/mouse5 mg/kgARTODN 38,87,1977
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster100 µmol/LMUREAV 252,305,1991
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/rat100 mg/kg/5D- intermittentENMUDM 6,393,1984
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kg/5D-continuousMUREAV 100,345,1982
sperm morphologyunreported route/mouse50 mg/kgGNKAA5 16,1397,1980
sperm morphologyoral/hamster400 mg/kg/24HARTODN 39,187,1978
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/hamster200 mg/kg/5DARTODN 38,35,1977
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/rat200 mg/kg/5DMUREAV 513,193,2002
sperm morphologysperm/human20 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 491,57,2001
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse40 mg/kgETOPFR 10,81,2001
sperm morphologyoral/mouse500 mg/kg/10DMUREAV 492,1,2001
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintravenous/rabbit20 mg/kgARTODN 46,139,1980
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintraperitoneal/mouse200 mg/kgMUREAV 50,229,1978
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/mouse100 mg/kgATSUDG 7,174,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat25 mg/kgJJATDK 2,172,1982
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintraperitoneal/rat25 mg/kgENMUDM 2,278,1980
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat500 µmol/LENMUDM 3,11,1981
Unscheduled DNA Synthesis/Salmonella typhimurium2 µgECEBDI 50,271,1982
Unscheduled DNA SynthesisHeLa cell/human100 nmol/LCNREA8 38,2621,1978
Unscheduled DNA Synthesislymphocyte/human1 µmol/LJTEHD6 6,1059,1980
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/human300 mg/LMUREAV 271,201,1992

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intramuscular/mouse 32 mg/kg (11-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NEOLA4 26,529,1979
intramuscular/mouse 106 mg/kg (11-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NEOLA4 26,529,1979
intramuscular/rat 42 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
FCTOD7 49,1455,2011
intramuscular/rat 42 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
FCTOD7 49,1455,2011
intramuscular/rat 42 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
FCTOD7 49,1455,2011
intramuscular/rat 42 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemFCTOD7 49,1455,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse 200 mg/kg (1-5D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)FCTOD7 46,567,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse 200 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
FCTOD7 46,567,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BDERE* 76,437,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
BDERE* 76,437,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system
BDERE* 76,437,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTERP2* -,317,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse 100 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityREPTED 5,73,1991
intraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified) 275 mg/kg (8-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
JIDOAA 35,387,1986
intraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified) 550 mg/kg (8-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
JIDOAA 35,387,1986
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
FATOAO 48,69,1985
intraperitoneal/rat 30 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
JPETAB 45,79,1982
intraperitoneal/rat 10 mg/kg (3D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)CYLPDN 21,554,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
FATOAO 48,69,1985
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemFATOAO 48,69,1985
intraperitoneal/rat 50 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
FCTOD7 41,89,2003
intraperitoneal/rat 11 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
REPTED 27,79,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TCMUD8 7,7,1987
intraperitoneal/mouse 100 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)MUREAV 100,345,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TJADAB 42,473,1990
intraperitoneal/mouse 1 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemJTEHD6 18,25,1986
intraperitoneal/mouse 5 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TJADAB 4,141,1971
intraperitoneal/mouse 5 mg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemARZNAD 22,122,1972
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TJADAB 4,141,1971
intraperitoneal/mouse 5 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)CNREA8 28,475,1968
intraperitoneal/hamster 1 gm/kg (4D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductJTEHD6 22,29,1987
intraperitoneal/hamster 5 mg/kg (17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)ATSUDG 4,22,1980
intraperitoneal/hamster 200 mg/kg (4D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)JTEHD6 22,29,1987
intraperitoneal/hamster 15 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)JCGBDF 9,381,1989
intraperitoneal/hamster 30 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
JCGBDF 9,381,1989
intraperitoneal/rat 140 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)HIKYAJ 12,1339,1966
intraperitoneal/rat 91 mg/kg (17-22D preg/20D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralYACHDS 10,703,1982
intraperitoneal/rat 7500 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TJADAB 24,1,1981
intraperitoneal/rat 30 mg/kg (3D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)TCMUD8 10,417,1990
intraperitoneal/rat 250 mg/kg (5W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)SCIEAS 211,80,1981
intraperitoneal/rat 10 mg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 24,1,1981
intraperitoneal/rat 20 mg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall
TJADAB 24,1,1981
intraplacental/mouse 80 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death40YJAX -,207,1979
intravenous/rabbit 30 mg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall
AGACBH 2,83,1971
intravenous/rabbit 20 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ARZNAD 30,1585,1980
intravenous/rabbit 30 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)AGACBH 2,83,1971
intravenous/rabbit 65 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
YACHDS 10,695,1982
intravenous/rabbit 80 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)TJADAB 24(2),36A,1981
intravenous/mouse 10 mg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)NATUAS 279,531,1979
intravenous/mouse 5 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)JTEHD6 18,25,1986
intravenous/rat 55 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemSEIJBO 20,143,1980
intravenous/mammal (species unspecified) 50 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
JIDOAA 35,387,1986
multiple/woman 382 mg/kg (1-39W pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
JAMAAP 188,423,1964
multiple/woman 502 mg/kg (1-37W pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
JAMAAP 188,423,1964
multiple/woman 215 mg/kg (43-70D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
AIMEAS 74,87,1971
oral/rat 100 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)MUREAV 48,267,1977
oral/rat 91800 µg/kg (18D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
BIREBV 37,317,1987
oral/rat 168 mg/kg (4W male)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)BIREBV 50,55,1994
oral/rat 110 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
IYKEDH 7,367,1976
oral/rat 110 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
IYKEDH 7,367,1976
oral/rat 5 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal systemTJADAB 28,11A,1983
oral/rat 122 mg/kg (18D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
BIREBV 37,317,1987
oral/woman 60 mg/kg (60D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersNEJMAG 289,1159,1973
oral/woman 980 mg/kg (2W pre-33W pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system
TCMUD8 13,139,1993
oral/man 107 mg/kg (21W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)LANCAO 2,156,1975
oral/woman 168 µg/kg (20W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersCANCAR 39,1403,1977
oral/domestic animal 30 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)JANSAG 34,903,1972
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 528 mg/kg (8-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
JIDOAA 35,387,1986
oral/rabbit 93 mg/kg (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NEOLA4 40,45,1993
oral/rabbit 279 mg/kg (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NEOLA4 40,45,1993
oral/mouse 20 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TXAPA9 45,344,1978
oral/mouse 20 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
JTEHD6 6,155,1980
oral/mouse 100 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
FCTXAV 13,317,1975
oral/mouse 97 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)AGACBH 2,180,1972
oral/rat 336 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TXAPA9 27,602,1974
oral/rat 504 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
TXAPA9 27,602,1974
oral/rat 140 mg/kg (7D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
JTSCDR 26,75,2001
oral/rat 61.2 mg/kg (3W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)BIREBV 34,275,1986
oral/rat 8.4 mg/kg (1W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)BIREBV 34,275,1986
oral/rat 40.8 mg/kg (2W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
BIREBV 34,275,1986
oral/rat 25.2 mg/kg (3W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
BIREBV 34,275,1986
oral/rat 91.8 mg/kg (3W male)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesBIREBV 34,275,1986
oral/rat 214.2 mg/kg (7W male)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BIREBV 34,275,1986
oral/rat 61.2 mg/kg (14D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)NATUAS 316,144,1985
oral/rat 91.8 mg/kg (21D male)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
NATUAS 316,144,1985
oral/rat 153 mg/kg (35D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)NATUAS 316,144,1985
oral/rat 214.2 mg/kg (49D male)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NATUAS 316,144,1985
oral/rat 260 mg/kg (18D prior to copulation/0-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)JTSCDR 34,SP83,2009
oral/rat 130 mg/kg (18D prior to copulation/0-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)JTSCDR 34,SP83,2009
oral/rat 520 mg/kg (18D prior to copulation/0-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
JTSCDR 34,SP83,2009
oral/mouse 50 mg/kg (16-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)MUREAV 653,134,2008
oral/hamster 16 mg/kg (2D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)ARZNAD 25,1889,1975
oral/rat 100 mg/kg (16-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)EMMUEG 44,174,2004
parenteral/mouse 20 mg/kg (4D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)TJADAB 24(2),49A,1981
parenteral/rabbit 48 mg/kg (10-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, earCRSBAW 164,1344,1970
parenteral/rabbit 10 mg/kg (10-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemAAHEAF 58,147,1975
parenteral/rat 10 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTJADAB 24(1),52A,1981
parenteral/rat 20 mg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
IJEBA6 20,838,1982
parenteral/rat 20 mg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
IJEBA6 20,838,1982
parenteral/rat 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)TJADAB 30(1),42A,1984
subcutaneous/rat 10 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXAPA9 9,445,1966
subcutaneous/rat 20 mg/kg (3D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
ASBDD9 2,95,1979
subcutaneous/rat 60 mg/kg (3D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaBIANA6 19,247,1981
subcutaneous/rat 60 mg/kg (3D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
JEEMAF 41,65,1977
subcutaneous/rabbit 4 mg/kg (10-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusCOREAF 258,2899,1964
subcutaneous/rabbit 60 mg/kg (10-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, earAAHEAF 53,209,1970
subcutaneous/mouse 20 mg/kg (2D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)ASBDD9 2,95,1979
subcutaneous/mouse 20 mg/kg (3D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusTCMUD8 6,23,1986
subcutaneous/mouse 200 mg/kg (11-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
JFHZA8 15,662,1965
subcutaneous/mouse 100 mg/kg (11-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathJFHZA8 15,662,1965
subcutaneous/mouse 4 mg/kg (3D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)TCMUD8 6,115,1986
subcutaneous/rat 7.5 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TOLED5 138,205,2003
subcutaneous/rat 7.5 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
FCTOD7 50,109,2012
subcutaneous/rat 7.5 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
FCTOD7 50,109,2012
subcutaneous/rat 7.5 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
FCTOD7 50,109,2012
subcutaneous/rat 7.5 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemFCTOD7 50,109,2012
unreported route/mouse 20 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemAPTOD9 19,A89,1980
unreported route/mouse 20 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, earTJADAB 28,46A,1983
unreported route/mouse 65 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
IITOEF 11,193,1989
unreported route/hamster 30 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemANTDEV 7,204,1996
unreported route/rat 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTJADAB 27,68A,1983
unreported route/rat 100 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)TJADAB 27,47A,1983
unreported route/rat 15 mg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)AXVMAW 36,179,1982
unreported route/rat 20 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, earTJADAB 24(1),42A,1981
unreported route/child 180 mg/kg (90D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductLANCAO 2,426,1972
unreported route/child 586 mg/kg (89D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)JOPDAB 88,206,1976
unreported route/woman 24 mg/kg (30D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersLANCAO 1,693,1972
unreported route/man 130 mg/kg (26W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
LANCAO 1,568,1972
unreported route/man 24286 µg/kg (17D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)LANCAO 2,1290,1972
unreported route/man 281 mg/kg (39W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
LANCAO 1,840,1972

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1950 mg/kg/26W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
RRCRBU 52,1,1975
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 676 mg/kg/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
ARZNAD 20,1461,1970
oral/human toxic dose: 920 mg/kg/3Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
AIMEAS 91,221,1979
oral/man toxic dose: 1190 mg/kg/4Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
MEDIAV 58,32,1979
oral/man toxic dose: 1078 mg/kg/3Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
RIHYAC 32,1073,1978
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 2310 mg/kg/4.5Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
BMJOAE 280,524,1980
oral/man toxic dose: 1800 mg/kg/6Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
JOURAA 126,544,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 475 mg/kg/100W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 23,706,1979
oral/rat toxic dose: 1270 mg/kg/87W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 23,706,1979
oral/rat toxic dose: 698 mg/kg/89W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 23,706,1979
oral/rat toxic dose: 1075 mg/kg/86W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors

Blood: Tumors
CANCAR 51,606,1983
oral/woman toxic dose: 1760 mg/kg/4Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
SJRHAT 12,73,1983
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 1890 mg/kg/3Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
JHMJAX 142,211,1978
oral/woman toxic dose: 2700 mg/kg/6Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
URGABW 17,105,1978
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1352 mg/kg/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Ovarian tumors
ARZNAD 20,1461,1970
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 3600 mg/kg/76W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
ARHEAW 22,1338,1979
unreported route/man lowest published toxic dose: 857 mg/kg/3Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors
JCPAAK 26,649,1973
unreported route/woman lowest published toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/69W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors
JCPAAK 26,649,1973

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Hamster, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >1500 mg/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 4,175,1990
In Vitro/Human, embryonic cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 154 mg/L/4DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 247,18,2010
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mg/L/48HReproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
TIVIEQ 2,189,1988
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 30 mg/L/48HReproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TIVIEQ 2,189,1988
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1291 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1019 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1036 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 659 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
intracerebral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >400 µg/kgJPPMAB 18,760,1966
intraperitoneal/cat lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
KSRNAM 16,431,1982
intraperitoneal/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
KSRNAM 16,431,1982
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgEye: Ptosis

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
KSRNAM 16,431,1982
intraperitoneal/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 429 mg/kgCALEDQ 2,267,1977
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 110 mg/kgFATOAO 41,90,1978
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: OogenesisREPTED 6,411,1992
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgEndocrine: EstrogenicREPTED 6,411,1992
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)PHMREP 35,457,1997
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)FATOAO 53,52,1990
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseFATOAO 51,60,1988
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgBlood: Changes in spleenFATOAO 52,67,1989
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesREPTED 5,379,1991
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgBlood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
EKFAE9 56,25,1993
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)EKFAE9 62,50,1999
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in aboveTXCYAC 171,63,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
BJMRDK 35,549,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentEJCAAH 39,801,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent

Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: NAD, NADP

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
CNREA8 63,8813,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 79,482,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgTumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumorsCCPHDZ 62,787,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
FTRPAE 83,636,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgEndocrine: Diabetes mellitus

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia
JPETAB 320,1038,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune responseCNREA8 65,5027,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
TOXID9 12,401,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kgSkin and Appendages: Other: HairEXPDE* 14,844,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 46,3368,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseETOPFR 26,315,2008
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgEye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
KSRNAM 16,431,1982
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 40 mg/kgCPCHAO 18,307,1962
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
EJPHAZ 543,92,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): TCS cycle

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 215,108,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 217,120,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 44,374,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
ARTODN 79,461,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgBlood: Changes in spleenTOXID9 66,298,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSTOLED5 145,143,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kgBlood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in spleen
TXCYAC 174,153,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesTOXID9 72,24,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
REPTED 5,481,1991
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgSkin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
VOONC* 45,650,1999
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladderBCLPT* 105(Suppl 1),128,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
BCLPT* 104,393,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)MUREAV 549,101,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Blood: Hemorrhage

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CEXPB9 31,167,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
EJPHAZ 554,34,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)EJPHAZ 554,34,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 11 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 27,79,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
FCTOD7 48,2326,2010
intratracheal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOLED5 30,63,1986
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 11 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
CCSUBJ 2,191,1965
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 40 mg/kgENTOX* -,709,2005
intravenous/domestic animal lethal dose (50 percent kill): 45100 µg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
DNXUDW 34,56,1980
intravenous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kgENTOX* -,709,2005
intravenous/monkey lowest published lethal dose: 45 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
CCSUBJ 2,191,1965
intravenous/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgBlood: LuekopeniaTXCYAC 213,1,2005
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 140 mg/kg17TVAO -,97,1969
intravenous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgBlood: LuekopeniaEJCAAH 39,801,2003
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgJTSCDR 34,308,1999
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 148 mg/kgBlood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
KSRNAM 16,431,1982
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 160 mg/kgENTOX* -,709,2005
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JPETAB 308,1204,2004
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 25,139,2000
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TOLED5 180,196,2008
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesTOPADD 35,226,2007
intravenous/woman lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/9W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changesAIMDAP 145,548,1985
intravenous/woman lowest published toxic dose: 13500 µg/kgEye: Visual field changesAIMEAS 116,92,1992
multiple/man lowest published lethal dose: 45 mg/kg/26W- intermittentBlood: Other changesAJMSA9 254,48,1967
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 2500 µg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
AJDCAI 140,1094,1986
oral/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 763 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
EXPEAM 37,401,1981
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
ARHEAW 12,663,1969
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changesSMJOAV 78,222,1985
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 579 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentLiver: Jaundice, other or unclassified

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
AJGAAR 95,845,2000
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/26D- intermittentBlood: AngranulocytosisAJMEAZ 81,1059,1986
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgBlood: LuekopeniaTXCYAC 213,1,2005
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 137 mg/kgRPTOAN 36,240,1973
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgNIIRDN -,516,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesFATOAO 49,51,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Change in gall bladder structure or function

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
FATOAO 49,51,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductJTSCDR 30,195,2005
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 16 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBlood: Other changesAJMSA9 254,48,1967
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesARHEAW 15,530,1972
parenteral/hamster lethal dose (10 percent kill): 110 mg/kgTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentJSONAU 15,355,1980
parenteral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 315 mg/kgTRPLAU 13,316,1972
parenteral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
TOXID9 -,14,2009
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kgASBDD9 2,95,1979
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseFATOAO 52,55,1989
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseEKFAE9 61,34,1998
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOLED5 138,205,2003
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 144 mg/kgBlood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
KSRNAM 16,431,1982
unreported route/human lowest published toxic dose: 25.7 mg/kgBlood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
EJCPAS (),A49,1999
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTOXID9 44,37,2005
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 480 mg/kgNYKZAU 64(4),157S,1968
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 190 mg/kgNYKZAU 64(4),157S,1968

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intramuscular/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
EKFAE9 63,59,2000
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/8D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 49,1455,2011
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/11D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
FCTOD7 49,1455,2011
intraperitoneal/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
INJPD2 36,175,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/21D- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentACPSI* 23,745,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/8D- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentACPSI* 23,946,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TXCYAC 209,15,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4D- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentTXAPA9 202,268,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
INIMP* 4,1223,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/4D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseEKFAE9 62,50,1999
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg/5D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTOXID9 72,104,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg/4D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response
TOSCF2 71,207,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 875 mg/kg/35D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
JTSCDR 25,189,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg/4D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 165,237,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/10D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TOLED5 13,129,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/4D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 39,1087,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3744 mg/kg/52W- intermittentEndocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
PSEBAA 133,190,1970
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/2D- intermittentSkin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent

Tumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumors
CALEDQ 147,17,1999
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
VOONC* 43,313,1997
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg/5D- intermittentTumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
EXONC* 18,276,1996
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJTSCDR 25,189,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg/7D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Luekopenia
JTSCDR 25,189,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/7D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJTSCDR 25,189,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/21D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Luekopenia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 25,189,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/10D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseFATOAO 52,67,1989
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/8D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Luekopenia

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
FATOAO 52,74,1989
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/7D- intermittentTumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumorsFCTOD7 49,1924,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/7D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 47,1841,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 234 mg/kg/3W- intermittentTumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumorsCCPHDZ 63,19,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/6D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Tumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumors
CCPHDZ 64,971,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1800 mg/kg/6W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
MUTAEX 23,341,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/6W- intermittentBlood: Luekopenia

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
MUTAEX 23,341,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/5D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseFCTOD7 48,1627,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg/10D- intermittentTumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumorsBIPHEX 62,480,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/10D- continuousTumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumorsBIMEL* 16,2550,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/10W- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JPETAB 328,371,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/10W- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JPETAB 328,371,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTOXIA6 50,1116,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/5D- intermittentTumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumorsBMCPH* 4,32,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 980 mg/kg/42D- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentMOCAT* 5,541,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/10D- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentFTRPAE 70,35,1999
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TXCYAC 248,96,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXCYAC 248,96,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentCNREA8 66,7639,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/1W- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentCNREA8 65,5027,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2100 mg/kg/2W- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentCNREA8 65,5027,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.35 gm/kg/27D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Tumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumors
PYTOEY 14,43,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Tumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumors
FCTOD7 50,695,2012
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBlood: Aplastic anemiaINJPD2 38,285,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg/4D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseJCINAO 118,1065,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/19D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
BCLPT* 105,236,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/19D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BCLPT* 105,236,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/4D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
NRTXDN 31,247,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/6D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Luekopenia
FATOAO 52,74,1989
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/15D- intermittentEndocrine: Effect on menstrual cycleCNREA8 47,2340,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/15D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
CNREA8 47,2340,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/15D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldCNREA8 47,2340,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2250 mg/kg/15D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
CNREA8 47,2340,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/30D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
KSRNAM 16,439,1982
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/4D- intermittentCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP
PCJOAU 36,1,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/6W- intermittentCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)
PCJOAU 36,1,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1146 mg/kg/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldCTSRCS 186,351,1978
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1528 mg/kg/4D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesCTSRCS 186,351,1978
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/30D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
BJCAAI 61,861,1990
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Luekopenia

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TXCYAC 215,57,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/10D- intermittentVascular: Structural changes in vessels

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
ARTODN 78,397,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg/14D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TOXID9 90,358,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
HETOEA 24,67,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationFCLPH* 18(Suppl 1),107,2004
intravenous/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/35D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
KSRNAM 16,462,1982
intravenous/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 13.18 µg/kg/4D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Other changes
TOXID9 -,222,2009
intravenous/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 39.54 µg/kg/3D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Other changes
TOXID9 -,222,2009
intravenous/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Luekopenia
TXCYAC 213,1,2005
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/8D- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentACPSI* 23,946,2002
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg/2W- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentFCTOD7 47,1716,2009
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 87500 µg/kg/5W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
IYKEDH 5,444,1974
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/7D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TXCYAC 107,47,1996
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 720 mg/kg/1Y- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in platelet count

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
APHRER 37,1618,2003
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/6W- intermittentBlood: LuekopeniaTXAPA9 4,324,1962
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBlood: Luekopenia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 4,324,1962
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 42.8 mg/kg/30W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins
FESTAS 36,76,1981
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/12W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductAJDCAI 129,315,1975
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 430180 mg/kg/274D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)AJDCAI 129,315,1975
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/60D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)AJDCAI 129,315,1975
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 338.6 mg/kg/60D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductAJDCAI 129,315,1975
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/8D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Luekopenia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 213,1,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg/5D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)PHMREP 35,457,1997
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 378 mg/kg/21D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
PHMREP 35,457,1997
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/7D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseCYLPDN 21,765,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
CYLPDN 22,1121,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/3D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseJOETD7 78,133,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/2W- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentCNREA8 67,3560,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg/40D- continuousTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentCNREA8 66,3386,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/10D- continuousVascular: Structural changes in vesselsCNREA8 66,1664,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/1W- continuousVascular: Structural changes in vessels

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
CNREA8 66,1664,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/14D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJTSCDR 34,SP83,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/4W- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
JTSCDR 34,SP83,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 260 mg/kg/26D- intermittentReproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 34,SP83,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 168 mg/kg/28D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 180S,S32,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/7D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 24,365,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/4W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
TOPADD 35,226,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/4W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOPADD 35,226,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 98 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationJOETD7 134,171,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 26.1 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBlood: Other changesJESEDU A22,639,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 336.6 mg/kg/11W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
BIREBV 34,275,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 168 mg/kg/56D- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countTXAPA9 27,602,1974
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 660 mg/kg/80D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTXAPA9 4,324,1962
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 87500 µg/kg/5W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
IYKEDH 5,444,1974
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/26W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
IYKEDH 5,444,1974
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/10D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
JTEHD6 15,561,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/1W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTSCDR 26,75,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 235 mg/kg/10D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldJESEDU A22,639,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 104.4 mg/kg/10D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Liver: Changes in liver weight
JESEDU A22,639,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 510 mg/kg/30D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTOXID9 72,103,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/5W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)BIREBV 66,1024,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/10W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 19,163,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/10W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
REPTED 19,163,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 194,129,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/14D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseTOXID9 44,38,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/10W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TXCYAC 217,71,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/21D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTOXID9 78,428,2004
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/3D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseEKFAE9 61,34,1998
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 49,2670,2011
unreported route/man lowest published toxic dose: 93 mg/kg/2D- intermittentCardiac: Pericarditis

Cardiac: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JCARD* 54,330,2009
unreported route/woman lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/18W- intermittentSkin and Appendages: Other: NailsAPHRER 38,1089,2004

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 26,165,1981
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 26,165,1981
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMSUDL 7,182,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJJIND8 95,190,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJJIND8 30,88,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJJIND8 30,135,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJPETAB 144,429,1964
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARVPAX 5,447,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWADVPA3 4,263,1966
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 2,159,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLFSBY 24,129,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEJMAG 342,1069,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTSCDR 25,1,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 135,167,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,281,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEJCAAH 40,2274,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 144,383,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 18,219,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 19,421,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 197,174,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBDERE* 70,99,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEOGRAL 117,10,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,55,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMMPH* 46,103,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,131,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 22,126,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 20,3,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 40,258,1994
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,709,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,384,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCAINV* 23,537,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCLLID* 11,641,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,154,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,68,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 17,137,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJAADDB 59,524,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,403,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,439,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 608,136,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,3,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,68,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 28,105,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTSCDR 34,SP1,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJKDDP 52,144,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBPRCG* 23,113,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBPRCR* 17,877,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBPRCR* 23,391,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLREV* 3,71,1989
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLREV* 4,226,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCALEDQ 267,1,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCOCPH* -,701,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCCACL* 17,483,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDERCL* 25,215,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDERCL* 26,103,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCGHEP* 5,648,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 575,102,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 680,109,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNCLNA* 16,171,1998
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,279,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNCLNA* 21,279,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,107,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCLPH* 22(Suppl 1),52,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,183,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,184,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 11,107,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,3,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,223,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,319,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,205,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,77,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,101,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 711,13,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,108,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 722,147,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 751,49,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 733,4,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 25,3,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 752,99,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 743-744,53,2013

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X3688; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 991; Number of Occupations 9; Total Number of Employees Exposed 30026; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 20745

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Sperm morphology-rabbit; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-BALB/c-3T3
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: Cell transform.-C3H/10T1/2
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-nonhuman; In vivo SCE-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vivo cytogenetics-mammalian oocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vivo cytogenetics-nonhuman bone marrow
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: Rodent dominant lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Body fluid assay; Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cytogenetics-male germ cell; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal; UDS in mouse germ cells
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test; Mouse specific locus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro cytogenetics-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-human bone marrow
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: L5178Y cells in vitro-TK test; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mouse spot test; E coli polA with S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Rodent heritable translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-forward mutation; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Sperm morphology-human; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Sperm morphology-rat; Sperm morphology-mouse F1
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: TRP reversion; S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (ipr);clear evidence:mouse,ratRRCRBU 52,1,1975
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
TOP