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Nicotine, tartrate (1:2)

RTECS #: QT0350000

CAS #: 65-31-6


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 462.46 MF: C10H14N22C4H6O6


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. ( - ) - Nicotine hydrogen tartrate
  2. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate
  3. Nicotine bitartrate
  4. Nicotine acid tartrate
  1. Nikotinbitartrat (German)
  2. Pyridine, 3 - (1 - methyl - 2 - pyrrolidinyl) - , (S) - , (R - (R*,R*) ) - 2,3 - dihydroxybutanedioate (1:2)
  3. Tartrate de nicotine (French)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
DNA inhibition human other cell types 2 mol/L/1 hour TXAPA9 206,17,2005


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 712 g/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TJADAB 29(3),28A,1984
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 85,503 g/kg (4-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system BRBUDU 23,187,1989
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg (12-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
JPETAB 248,786,1989
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system DBRRDB 68,233,1992
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 34 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system NETEEC 14,375,1992
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 102 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
DBRRDB 102,117,1997
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 168 mg/kg (4-22 day pregnant/10 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
JPETAB 320,654,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,500 g/kg (3-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral PPTDD5 9(Suppl 1),39,1988
intravenous
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 50 g/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes JRPFA4 31,91,1972
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg (10 day prior to copulation-10 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
EXBME* 226,934,2001
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 68 mg/kg (1-68 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral JGPSAY 120,49,1993
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 15,391 g/kg (1-6 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear EPILAK 26,661,1985
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 285 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles) PSYPAG 10,44,1966
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg (1-5 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility BIREBV 20,294,1979
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratio

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
PBBHAU 33,1,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 102 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
JPETAB 251,894,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 36 mg/kg (4-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
JPETAB 300,124,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
LIFSAK 71,3059,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
NETEEC 26,103,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56.1 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TXCYAC 209,245,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
ARTODN 78,467,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56.1 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
ARTODN 80,620,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
FCLPH* 18,37,2004


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intracerebral
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 102 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold JPETAB 306,1159,2003
intracerebral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 360.9 g/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
PHREP* 59,259,2007
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22.2 g/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests EJPHAZ 465,91,2003
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32 g/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 168,271,2003
intramuscular
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 g/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning PSCHDL 175,225,2004
intraperitoneal
hamster
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 125 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 22,324,1972
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 177,77,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia TXAPA9 177,77,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg Behavioral: Antianxiety EJPHAZ 420,33,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7.8 mg/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Straub Tail
PHREP* 59,259,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 83 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 22,324,1972
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 167,335,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) NETEEC 29,74,2007
intravenous
human
lowest published toxic dose: 20 ng/kg Vascular: Other changes CLPTAT 67,391,2000
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Rigidity (includes catalepsy)
BJPCBM 35,161,1969
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,119,2001
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 554.95 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold JPETAB 312,355,2005
intravenous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 693.69 g/kg N/R JPETAB 312,355,2005
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 600 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold PLRCAT 5,341,1973
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kg Behavioral: Abuse JPETAB 303,664,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) JPETAB 303,664,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/24 hour Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
LIFSAK 70,1543,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 172,179,2004
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 g/kg Behavioral: Analgesia

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
JPETAB 309,109,2004
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.665 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS BJPCBM 147,379,2006
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.143 mg/kg Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
BMCCP* 7,11,2007
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.286 mg/kg Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
BMCCP* 7,11,2007
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 65 mg/kg N/R PLRCAT 5,341,1973
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 65 mg/kg N/R PLRCAT 5,341,1973
parenteral
frog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 337 mg/kg N/R ABMGAJ 28,681,1972
parenteral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 33,500 g/kg N/R ABMGAJ 28,681,1972
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 53 mg/kg N/R PLRCAT 5,341,1973
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) JOETD7 66,83,1999
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NEROEW 28,1235,2003
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3.25 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NEROEW 28,1235,2003
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NEROEW 28,1235,2003
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia PHREP* 57,755,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests JPETAB 302,95,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 g/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
EJPHAZ 465,83,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.45 mg/kg Behavioral: Toxic psychosis PSCHDL 164,309,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning PSCHDL 167,251,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 168,271,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Antianxiety

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity
NEROEW 25,601,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Antianxiety NEROEW 28,1257,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 6 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold NEROEW 28,1935,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 177,438,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) PSCHDL 175,265,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.586 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
JPETAB 313,740,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.32 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes EJPHAZ 554,128,2007
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kg N/R SMWOAS 91,359,1961


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/4 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NETEEC 29,126,2007
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 102 mg/kg/17 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NETEEC 29,10,2007
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg/8 day- continuous Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum NETEEC 29,10,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOLED5 109,21,1999
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
EJPHAZ 502,75,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
EJPHAZ 502,75,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
EJPHAZ 504,169,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) PSCHDL 178,440,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 219,197,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
EJPHAZ 554,92,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NETEEC 29,31,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCLPH* 19,155,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 504 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
SIMEJ* 48,195,2007
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Behavioral: Toxic psychosis

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
PSCHDL 164,309,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Behavioral: Abuse PSCHDL 167,257,2003
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.24 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NETEEC 29,66,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 36 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) NETEEC 22,695,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
ARTODN 77,452,2003
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7.2 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning JOETD7 66,83,1999
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 112 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) PSCHDL 169,186,2003
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,918 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Behavioral: Withdrawal

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
EJPHAZ 516,40,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 72.5 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Behavioral: Withdrawal PHREP* 57,755,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.25 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) EJPHAZ 417,117,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Behavioral: Toxic psychosis PSCHDL 164,309,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.25 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 173,98,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 63 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Behavioral: Withdrawal

Behavioral: Abuse
PSCHDL 168,280,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 63 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Behavioral: Withdrawal

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NEROEW 25,55,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning EJPHAZ 486,175,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning NEROEW 27,712,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NEROEW 27,712,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.4 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NEROEW 27,727,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NEROEW 28,1935,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NEROEW 28,1935,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Aldosteronism EJPHAZ 495,167,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning PSCHDL 175,265,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 301.7 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
NRTXDN 26,467,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 206,17,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22.4 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JPETAB 304,575,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TXAPA9 206,17,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance TXCYAC 234,83,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) NETEEC 29,341,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 29,10,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NRTXDN 28,1129,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NRTXDN 28,1129,2007


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

N/R N/R N/R


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

N/R N/R N/R


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

N/R N/R N/R


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

N/R


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

ABMGAJ Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica. (Berlin, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-41, 1958-82. For publisher information, see BBIADT.
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BIREBV Biology of Reproduction. (Soc. for the Study of Reproduction, 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1969-
BJPCBM British Journal of Pharmacology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.34- 1968-
BMCCP*
BRBUDU Brain Research Bulletin. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1976-
CLPTAT Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, St. Louis Mo Mosby-Year Book) V.1- 1960-
DBRRDB Developmental Brain Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1981-
EJPHAZ European Journal of Pharmacology. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1967-
EPILAK Epilepsia (New York). (Raven Press, 1185 Ave. of the Americas, New York, NY 10036) Ser.1-3: 1909-55; Ser.4: V.1- 1959-
EXBME* Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) (Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Maywood, NJ : The Society) V. 226- 2001-
FCLPH* Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (Oxford : Blackwell Science) 2001-
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
JGPSAY Journal of General Psychology. (Journal Press, c/o Heldref Publications, 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1928-
JOETD7 Journal of Ethnopharmacology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1979-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JRPFA4 Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 1960-
LIFSAK Life Sciences. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1-8, 1962-69; V.14- 1974-
NEROEW Neuropsychopharmacology. (Elsevier Science, 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010) V.1- 1987-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
PBBHAU Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. (ANKHO International Inc., P.O. Box 426, Fayetteville, NY 13066) V.1- 1973-
PHREP*
PLRCAT Pharmacological Research Communications. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1969-
PPTDD5 Peptides. (Pergamon Press Inc., 660 White Plains Rd., Tarrytown, NY 10591-5153) V.1- 1980-
PSCHDL Psychopharmacology (Berlin). (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.47- 1976-
PSYPAG Psychopharmacologia (Berlin). (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-46, 1959-76. For publisher information, see PSCHDL.
SIMEJ*
SMWOAS Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift. (Schwabe & Co., Steintorst 13, 4010 Basel, Switzerland) V.50- 1920-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-

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