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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Nicotine, tartrate (1:2)

RTECS #

QT0350000

CAS #

65-31-6

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

462.46

Molecular Formula

C10H14N2·2C4H6O6

Synonyms

(-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate
Nicotine acid tartrate
Nicotine bitartrate
Nicotine hydrogen tartrate
Nikotinbitartrat (German)
Pyridine, 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-, (S)-, (R-(R*,R*))-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioate (1:2)
Tartrate de nicotine (French)

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
DNA Damagesubcutaneous/rat52.5 mg/kg/15D- intermittentFCTOD7 48,3215,2010
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human2 µmol/L/1HTXAPA9 206,17,2005

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rat 712 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTJADAB 29(3),28A,1984
implant/rat 85503 µg/kg (4-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemBRBUDU 23,187,1989
implant/rat 42 mg/kg (12-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
JPETAB 248,786,1989
implant/rat 126 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemDBRRDB 68,233,1992
implant/rat 34 mg/kg (4-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemNETEEC 14,375,1992
implant/rat 102 mg/kg (4-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
DBRRDB 102,117,1997
implant/rat 168 mg/kg (4-22 D preg/10 D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
JPETAB 320,654,2007
intraperitoneal/rat 9500 µg/kg (3-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralPPTDD5 9(Suppl 1),39,1988
intravenous/monkey 50 µg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesJRPFA4 31,91,1972
intravenous/domestic animal 10 µg/kg (40W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
NRTXDN 30,290,2009
intravenous/domestic animal 750 µg/kg (40W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
NRTXDN 30,290,2009
oral/rat 210 mg/kg (10D pre-10D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
EXBME* 226,934,2001
subcutaneous/rat 60 mg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
LIFSAK 71,3059,2002
subcutaneous/rat 20 mg/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
NETEEC 26,103,2004
subcutaneous/rat 56.1 mg/kg (4-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TXCYAC 209,245,2005
subcutaneous/rat 17 mg/kg (4-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
ARTODN 78,467,2004
subcutaneous/guinea pig 68 mg/kg (1-68D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralJGPSAY 120,49,1993
subcutaneous/rat 36 mg/kg (4-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
JPETAB 300,124,2002
subcutaneous/rat 56.1 mg/kg (4-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
ARTODN 80,620,2006
subcutaneous/rat 40 mg/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
FCLPH* 18,37,2004
subcutaneous/rat 285 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)PSYPAG 10,44,1966
subcutaneous/rat 75 mg/kg (1-5D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityBIREBV 20,294,1979
subcutaneous/rat 90 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratio

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
PBBHAU 33,1,1989
subcutaneous/rat 102 mg/kg (4-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
JPETAB 251,894,1989
subcutaneous/mouse 15391 µg/kg (1-6D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, earEPILAK 26,661,1985
subcutaneous/rat 57 mg/kg (3-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
APPET* 52,492,2009
subcutaneous/rat 120 mg/kg (3-21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralAPPET* 52,492,2009
subcutaneous/rat 252 mg/kg (1-21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
HETOEA 27,781,2008
subcutaneous/monkey 260 mg/kg (30-160D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
NETEEC 33,431,2011

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intracerebral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 102 µg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdJPETAB 306,1159,2003
intracerebral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 360.9 µg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
PHREP* 59,259,2007
intracerebral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 µg/kgBehavioral: AnalgesiaNRSCDN 132,49,2005
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22.2 µg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsEJPHAZ 465,91,2003
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 µg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 168,271,2003
intramuscular/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 µg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningPSCHDL 175,225,2004
intraperitoneal/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 125 mg/kgTXAPA9 22,324,1972
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7 mg/kgTXAPA9 177,77,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mg/kgBehavioral: AnalgesiaTXAPA9 177,77,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kgBehavioral: AntianxietyEJPHAZ 420,33,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsPSCHDL 204,563,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.09 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 196,483,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7.8 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Straub Tail
PHREP* 59,259,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreasePSCHDL 197,409,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.04 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 167,335,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 83 mg/kgTXAPA9 22,324,1972
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NETEEC 29,74,2007
intravenous/human lowest published toxic dose: 20 ng/kgVascular: Other changesCLPTAT 67,391,2000
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 mg/kgHBPTO* 1,119,2001
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 µg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Rigidity (includes catalepsy)
BJPCBM 35,161,1969
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 554.95 µg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdJPETAB 312,355,2005
intravenous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 693.69 µg/kgJPETAB 312,355,2005
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.0665 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSBJPCBM 147,379,2006
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 600 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdPLRCAT 5,341,1973
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgBehavioral: Analgesia

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
JPETAB 309,109,2004
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/24HBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
LIFSAK 70,1543,2002
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.01 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 172,179,2004
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 µg/kgBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sitesPSCHDL 193,457,2007
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 323.722 µg/kgCardiac: Change in rateJPETAB 326,912,2008
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.02 mg/kgBehavioral: AbuseJPETAB 303,664,2002
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)JPETAB 303,664,2002
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.0286 mg/kgBehavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
BMCCP* 7,11,2007
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.0143 mg/kgBehavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
BMCCP* 7,11,2007
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 65 mg/kgPLRCAT 5,341,1973
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 65 mg/kgPLRCAT 5,341,1973
parenteral/frog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 337 mg/kgABMGAJ 28,681,1972
parenteral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)PBBHAU 94,410,2010
parenteral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 33500 µg/kgABMGAJ 28,681,1972
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 53 mg/kgPLRCAT 5,341,1973
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsNEROEW 28,1235,2003
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.25 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NEROEW 28,1235,2003
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NEROEW 28,1235,2003
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.05 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)JOETD7 66,83,1999
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.035 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningPHREP* 61,236,2009
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSPSCHDL 202,599,2009
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.035 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPHREP* 61,236,2009
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Analgesia
JPETAB 322,399,2007
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgBehavioral: AnalgesiaJPETAB 322,399,2007
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseJPETAB 322,399,2007
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdJPETAB 323,907,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsJPETAB 302,95,2002
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kgBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sitesJPETAB 327,482,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningPSCHDL 167,251,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.45 mg/kgBehavioral: Toxic psychosisPSCHDL 164,309,2002
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 168,271,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.05 mg/kgBehavioral: Antianxiety

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity
NEROEW 25,601,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.05 mg/kgBehavioral: AntianxietyNEROEW 28,1257,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 6 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdNEROEW 28,1935,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 177,438,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.01 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)PSCHDL 175,265,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgEye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
EJPHAZ 465,83,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.586 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
JPETAB 313,740,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.32 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesEJPHAZ 554,128,2007
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kgSMWOAS 91,359,1961

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/4D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNETEEC 29,126,2007
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 102 mg/kg/17D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNETEEC 29,10,2007
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg/8D- continuousBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatumNETEEC 29,10,2007
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 63 mg/kg/7D- continuousBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Withdrawal
PSCHDL 195,303,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/14D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOLED5 109,21,1999
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
EJPHAZ 502,75,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
EJPHAZ 502,75,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
EJPHAZ 504,169,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/21D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 219,197,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
EJPHAZ 554,92,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)PSCHDL 178,440,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 19.6 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBehavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
PBBHAU 95,92,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 200,403,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/21D- intermittentCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCLPH* 19,155,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsNETEEC 29,31,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 504 mg/kg/12W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
SIMEJ* 48,195,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/10D- intermittentTaste: Change in functionNETEEC 30,404,2008
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBehavioral: Toxic psychosis

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
PSCHDL 164,309,2002
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.24 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsNETEEC 29,66,2007
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg/2W- intermittentBehavioral: AbusePSCHDL 167,257,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NETEEC 22,695,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
ARTODN 77,452,2003
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1918 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBehavioral: Withdrawal

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
EJPHAZ 516,40,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7.2 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningJOETD7 66,83,1999
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 112 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)PSCHDL 169,186,2003
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 72.5 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBehavioral: WithdrawalPHREP* 57,755,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.15 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningJPETAB 322,399,2007
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 336 mg/kg/7D- continuousBehavioral: WithdrawalJPETAB 322,399,2007
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/10D- continuousBehavioral: ToleranceJPETAB 322,399,2007
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 88.2 mg/kg/14D- continuousBehavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
PSCHDL 196,483,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52.5 mg/kg/15D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 48,3215,2010
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.1 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)JPETAB 325,985,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningJPETAB 327,482,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg/2D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNRTXDN 28,1129,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/2D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNRTXDN 28,1129,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.2 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBehavioral: ToleranceNETEEC 30,220,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.15 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
PSCHDL 205,655,2009
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg/21D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainHETOEA 27,781,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 202,275,2009
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.25 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)EJPHAZ 417,117,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBehavioral: Toxic psychosisPSCHDL 164,309,2002
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.25 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 173,98,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 63 mg/kg/7D- continuousBehavioral: Withdrawal

Behavioral: Abuse
PSCHDL 168,280,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 63 mg/kg/7D- continuousBehavioral: Withdrawal

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NEROEW 25,55,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/28D- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningEJPHAZ 486,175,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/1W- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningNEROEW 27,712,2002
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 mg/kg/1W- intermittentBehavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NEROEW 27,712,2002
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.4 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsNEROEW 27,727,2002
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mg/kg/2D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NEROEW 28,1935,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/1W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NEROEW 28,1935,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/14D- intermittentEndocrine: AldosteronismEJPHAZ 495,167,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningPSCHDL 175,265,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 301.7 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
NRTXDN 26,467,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg/7D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 206,17,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22.4 mg/kg/14D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JPETAB 304,575,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 29,10,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg/2W- intermittentBehavioral: ToleranceTXCYAC 234,83,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg/2W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NETEEC 29,341,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg/7D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTXAPA9 206,17,2005
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