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Nicotine

RTECS #: QS5250000

CAS #: 54-11-5


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 162.26 MF: C10H14N2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. ( - ) - 3 - (1 - Methyl - 2 - pyrrolidyl) pyridine
  2. ( - ) - Nicotine
  3. (S) - 3 - (1 - Methyl - 2 - pyrrolidinyl) pyridine
  4. (S) - Nicotine
  5. 1 - Methyl - 2 - (3 - pyridyl) pyrrolidine
  6. 3 - (N - Methylpyrrolidino) pyridine
  7. Black leaf
  8. Destruxol orchid spray
  9. ENT 3,424
  10. Emo - nik
  11. Flux MAAG
  12. Fumetobac
  13. Habitrol
  14. L - 3 - (1 - Methyl - 2 - pyrrolidyl) pyridine
  15. L - Nicotine
  16. Mach - Nic
  17. Niagara P.A. dust
  18. Nico - dust
  19. Nico - fume
  20. Nicocide
  1. Nicorette gum
  2. Nicotina (Italian)
  3. Nicotine (ACGIH:OSHA)
  4. Nicotine alkaloid
  5. Nikotin (German)
  6. Nikotyna (Polish)
  7. Ortho N - 4 and N - 5 dusts
  8. Ortho N - 4 dust
  9. Ortho N - 5 dust
  10. Prostep
  11. Pyridine, 3 - (1 - methyl - 2 - pyrrolidinyl) -
  12. Pyridine, 3 - (1 - methyl - 2 - pyrrolidinyl) - , (S) - (9CI)
  13. Pyridine, 3 - (tetrahydro - 1 - methylpyrrol - 2 - yl)
  14. Pyrrolidine, 1 - methyl - 2 - (3 - pyridal) -
  15. RCRA waste number P075
  16. Tendust
  17. Tetrahydronicotyrine, dl -
  18. XL all insecticide
  19. beta - Pyridyl - alpha - N - methylpyrrolidine


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 1 gm/L CALEDQ 54,89,1990
cytogenetic analysis human mammary gland 200 mol/L/24 hour EMMUEG 39,235,2002
dominant lethal test intraperitoneal
mouse
10 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent IRLCDZ 6,461,1978
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
18.2 g/kg FCTOD7 41,1045,2003
DNA damage subcutaneous
rat
275 mg/kg/22 week- intermittent TXCYAC 243,207,2008
DNA inhibition human other cell types 4 mmol/L CALEDQ 33,91,1986
DNA inhibition rabbit other cell types 1 mmol/L TXCYAC 34,309,1985
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) RSTUDV 6,161,1976
micronucleus test oral
mouse
8 mg/kg TXCYAC 235,112,2007
other mutation test systems human other cell types 4 mmol/L CALEDQ 33,91,1986
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 625 mg/L CALEDQ 54,89,1990


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 8.9 ppm (14-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic NETEEC 28,210,2006
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 26,250 g/kg (5-23 day pregnant/16 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
BPHAEL 10,699,1999
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg (6-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ANANAU 168,109,1989
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg (6-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ANANAU 172,257,1991
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg (6-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system
ANANAU 172,257,1991
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg (8-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TOXID9 3,156,1983
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 19,200 g/kg (14-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Germ cell effects (in offspring) TXCYAC 94,69,1994
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TSPSA* -,267,2003
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg (8-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TSPSA* -,267,2003
intramuscular
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 13 mg/kg (3-19 week pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth
AJPEEK 9,270,1992
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg (9-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SCIEAS 127,877,1958
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 27,40A,1983
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) TJADAB 27,40A,1983
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42,500 g/kg (6-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects NETEEC 20,465,1998
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,250 g/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
ACNSAX 15,148,1973
intravenous
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 200 g/kg (16 week pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system AJOGAH 167,1624,1992
intravenous
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 500 g/kg (17 week pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus AJOGAH 111,1092,1971
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 108 mg/kg (4-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOXID9 60,373,2001
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,750 g/kg (7-21 day pregnant/8 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
BNEOBV 53,163,1988
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 37 mg/kg (7-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system SAMJAF 83,195,1993
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TJADAB 14,252,1976
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 642 mg/kg (21 day prior to copulation/1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TXAPA9 66,30,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SEIJBO 16,253,1976
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages
SEIJBO 18,167,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 59,400 g/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
PSEBAA 116,956,1964
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 594 mg/kg (4 week male/4 week prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NETOD7 1,221,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22 mg/kg (20 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NETEEC 9,95,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 319 mg/kg (7-20 day pregnant/35 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic BRREAP 732,257,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg (10-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system EESADV 55,152,2003
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 40 g/kg (24 week pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system BJOGAS 90,710,1983
parenteral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 408 mg/kg (1-68 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NTOTDY 4,365,1982
parenteral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 408 mg/kg (1-68 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) ANREAK 193,159,1979
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
AJOGAH 100,957,1968
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
AJOGAH 110,522,1971
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (1-5 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility BIRSB5 20(Suppl 1),52A,1979
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 44 mg/kg (0-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system TOXID9 66,134,2002
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 78,274,2004
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 78,274,2004
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SCIEAS 127,877,1958
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg (5 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) SCIEAS 127,877,1958
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg (10-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
KAIZAN 39,212,1964
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (9-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
BRBUDU 29,363,1992
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 102 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
DBRRDB 102,117,1997
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,800 g/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical FATOAO 47(5),85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 33 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive) FATOAO 47(5),85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TJADAB 23,53A,1981
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg (14-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth BNEOBV 35,290,1979
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kg (1-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) ENDKAC 69,359,1977
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22,500 g/kg (21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Postpartum

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
AJOGAH 95,515,1966
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg (15-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TJADAB 25(2),77A,1982
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 21,603,1999
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
FATOAO 47,85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system FATOAO 47,85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
FATOAO 47,85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg (5-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOXID9 72,127,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 108 mg/kg (4-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NEROEW 29,275,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56.1 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TOXID9 44,196,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (4 day pregnant-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system TOXID9 44,335,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 19 mg/kg (3-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system TOXID9 44,335,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 78,274,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56.1 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 78,274,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg (8-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) ETPAEK 59,245,2007
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg (1 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TERP1* -,300,2004


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraarterial
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22 g/kg Eye: Changes in circulation

Vascular: Measurement of regional blood flow
EJPHAZ 546,148,2006
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.97 mg/kg/30 minute Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS JPETAB 317,334,2006
intraduodenal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 25,1037,1975
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.14 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests PSCHDL 174,334,2004
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.14 mg/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NEROEW 28,2184,2003
intramuscular
domestic bird
lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kg N/R PHZOA9 12,238,1939
intramuscular
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 9 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
cattle
lowest published lethal dose: 9 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 7,700 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 29,1177,1932
intramuscular
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
horse, donkey
lowest published lethal dose: 8,800 g/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
horse, donkey
lowest published lethal dose: 8,800 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
monkey
lowest published lethal dose: 6 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 17.8 g/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests PSCHDL 175,225,2004
intramuscular
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 9 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
pigeon
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
JPETAB 308,73,2004
intramuscular
pig
lowest published lethal dose: >14 mg/kg Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia EKFAE9 63,16,2000
intramuscular
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kg N/R JPETAB 50,93,1934
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,900 g/kg N/R TXAPA9 28,227,1974
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia EURNE* 14,71,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold JPETAB 308,957,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14,560 g/kg N/R JPETAB 124,350,1958
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Endocrine: Other changes
PHMREP 35,181,1997
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease FATOAO 44,40,1981
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes FATOAO 44,565,1981
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests EJPHAZ 474,227,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
LIFSAK 70,2915,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 171,398,2004
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14 mg/kg N/R PSEBAA 58,231,1945
intraspinal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.65 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia JMCMAR 44,4039,2001
intraspinal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease JMCMAR 44,4039,2001
intraspinal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) JMCMAR 44,4039,2001
intratracheal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 19,300 g/kg N/R ARDSBL 129,112,1984
intravenous
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,300 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 35,316,1936
intravenous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5 mg/kg N/R JPETAB 95,506,1949
intravenous
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 20 g/kg Autonomic Nervous System: Ganglion facilitant

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
EJPHAZ 443,197,2002
intravenous
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,500 g/kg N/R ARZNAD 11,1011,1961
intravenous
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8 mg/kg N/R 30ZDA9 -,406,1971
intravenous
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Abuse

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 175,134,2004
intravenous
man
lowest published toxic dose: 21.4 g/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
NEROEW 28,765,2003
intravenous
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites NEROEW 29,259,2004
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 g/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
BJPCBM 35,161,1969
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOLED5 160,179,2006
intravenous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 2.86 mg/kg Liver: Change in gall bladder structure or function

Liver: Other changes
TOLED5 160,179,2006
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.3 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* ,706,2005
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,800 g/kg N/R NIIRDN -,916,1995
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 g/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS NNAPBA 362,41,2000
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) TOXID9 72,34,2003
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kg Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section PAINDB 85,443,2000
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 g/kg Eye: Changes in circulation

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Vascular: Measurement of regional blood flow
EJPHAZ 546,148,2006
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6,250 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 58,231,1945
oral
wild bird
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17,800 g/kg N/R AECTCV 12,355,1983
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 9,200 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 29,1177,1932
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 85.7 g/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG NEROEW 24,671,2001
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 173,49,2004
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.57 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests PSCHDL 190,457,2007
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.29 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NEROEW 28,1366,2003
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,340 g/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
HYSAAV 34(4-6),187,1969
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Irritability

Cardiac: Change in rate
MUREAV 632,29,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
MUREAV 632,29,2007
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg N/R FMCHA2 -,C219,1991
oral
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg N/R ARPTDI 45,247,2005
parenteral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 5,700 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 29,1177,1932
parenteral
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 34 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes JPETAB 48,317,1933
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Antianxiety PSCHDL 158,205,2001
rectal
human
lowest published toxic dose: 1,430 g/kg Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
CTOXAO 10,391,1977
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 6 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JPETAB 48,95,1933
subcutaneous
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS EJPHAZ 422,185,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 16 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 188,605,1938
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold EJPHAZ 466,99,2003
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 153,327,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.65 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) TOXID9 44,293,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia JPETAB 315,959,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
JPETAB 320,250,2007
subcutaneous
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 4,580 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 23.5 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,118,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 g/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests TOXID9 72,74,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
PSCHDL 175,114,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum EJPHAZ 494,167,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
PAHEAA 74,125,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Analgesia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
PAINDB 85,443,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 g/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) TOXID9 44,293,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning HETOEA 25,199,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mg/kg Behavioral: Tolerance PSCHDL 192,71,2007
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
skin
child
lowest published toxic dose: 0.35 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests PSCHDL 176,182,2004
skin
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/5 minute Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
JTCTDW 39,135,2001
skin
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 5.3 mg/kg/5 minute Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
CTOXAO 39,135,2001
skin
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests PSCHDL 159,83,2001
skin
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.42 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle weakness NEROEW 27,684,2002
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 140 mg/kg N/R WRPCA2 9,119,1970
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
AFDOAQ 16,3,1952
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,225,2005
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 882 g/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 260 g/kg N/R EPXXDW #0000106
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 13 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold TOSCF2 72,289,2003


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TXAPA9 135,268,1995
intraperitoneal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Vascular: Other changes JAPYAA 86,1126,1999
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NEROEW 29,869,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/13 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) PSCHDL 178,500,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 112 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Withdrawal

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
FCLPH* 18(Suppl 1),125,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
IJEBA6 13,360,1975
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Endocrine: Estrogenic PHMREP 35,181,1997
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests EJPHAZ 474,227,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
JOETD7 60,215,1998
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases
ETPAEK 55,393,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
: 4 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins NETEEC 28,412,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg/17 day- intermittent Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites NSAPCC 372(Suppl 1),78,2006
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOXID9 72,124,2003
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS TOXID9 72,124,2003
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 47.25 mg/kg/5 week- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
JPETAB 302,935,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain PSCHDL 157,45,2001
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Behavioral: Analgesia PSCHDL 157,45,2001
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg/8 day- continuous Behavioral: Analgesia PSCHDL 157,45,2001
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response JPETAB 302,935,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 108 mg/kg/18 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOXID9 60,373,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal) PSCHDL 178,183,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,120 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Withdrawal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
PSCHDL 178,183,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 gm/kg/20 week- continuous Vascular: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
NSAPCC 372(Suppl 1),19,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/40 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NYKZAU 86,35,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
PANCR* 5,222,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 336 mg/kg/16 week- continuous Endocrine: Hypoglycemia PANCR* 5,222,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,568 mg/kg/16 week- continuous Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Endocrine: Other changes
PANCR* 5,222,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 257.6 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
EJPHAZ 458,227,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct JOETD7 60,215,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NETEEC 25,329,2003
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Behavioral: Toxic psychosis

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 153,315,2001
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 108 mg/kg/18 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
TOXID9 78,274,2004
parenteral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 83.4 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
EXMPA6 11,71,1969
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 415 mg/kg/21 day- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
TOLED5 31,23,1986
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Hypoglycemia JPETAB 300,876,2002
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
JPETAB 300,876,2002
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 36.4 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JPETAB 300,876,2002
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 22.4 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS
PSCHDL 153,327,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
: 336 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Tolerance
JPETAB 315,959,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8.3 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes JPETAB 317,30,2006
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 19.8 mg/kg/33 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NETEEC 29,47,2007
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 112 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Withdrawal

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
FCLPH* 18(Suppl 1),109,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12,600 g/kg/3 week- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
TOLED5 116,61,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 875 g/kg/1 week- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
TOXID9 72,74,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) PSCHDL 156,469,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 168,216,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
BJPCBM 138,1376,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
NEROEW 23,79,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
TOXID9 66,314,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning ANBEX* 65,125,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
TXCYAC 239,60,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 275 mg/kg/22 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 238,90,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.7 mg/kg/9 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning NRTXDN 28,562,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg/9 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NRTXDN 28,562,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 275 mg/kg/22 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 243,317,2008
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
ETPAEK 59,245,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 275 mg/kg/22 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
SIMEJ* 48,124,2007
skin
human
lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, allergic MFEPDX 11,223,1989
skin
human
lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NEROEW 24,350,2001
skin
human
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritative
PSCHDL 171,465,2004


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EURNE* 12,287,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 559,11,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ADVPA3 4,263,1966
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETEEC 24,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,207,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
LIFSAK 71,2807,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 488,151,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 23,130,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 23,78,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 23,225,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 23,475,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,41,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,172,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,493,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CLDER* 16,617,1998
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JPETAB 312,875,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 19,251,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NRTXDN 27,525,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JOPSEQ 20,143,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,225,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,197,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOPADD 33,517,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ARPTDI 47,564,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMCNA* 25,375,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,221,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,335,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETEEC 30,1,2008


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Supported RBREV* -,194,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* 3,181,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3 (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 1.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.07 ppm (0.5 mg/m3),KZG- week 0.14 ppm (1 mg/m3),Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3 (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO NICOTINE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 50570;
Number of Industries 3;
Total Number of Facilities 83;
Number of Occupations 4;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 161
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 50570;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 43;
Number of Occupations 1;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 4,737;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 861


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-aneuploidy; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an agricultural chemical and pesticide, pharmaceutical, veterinary drug
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Nicotine, 2544


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

30ZDA9 "Chemistry of Pesticides," Melnikov, N.N., New York, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1971
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
ACNSAX Activitas Nervosa Superior. (Avicenum, Malostranske nam. 28, Prague 1, Czechoslovakia) V.1- 1959-
ADVPA3 Advances in Pharmacology. (New York, NY) V.1-6, 1962-68. For publisher information, see AVPCAQ.
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Used as an agricultural chemical and pesticide, pharmaceutical, veterinary drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Natural Product

ALT CAS #: 6912-85-2
ALT CAS #: 16760-37-5
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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