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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Nickel sulfide (3:2)

RTECS #

QR9800000

CAS #

12035-72-2

Updated

September 201

Molecular Weight

240.25

Molecular Formula

Ni3S2

Synonyms

alpha-Nickel sulfide (3:2) crystalline
Nickel sesquisulfide
Nickel subsulfide
Nickel subsulphide
Nickel sulphide
Nickel tritadisulphide
Trinickel disulphide

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster5 mg/LTXAPA9 84,278,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/mouse1 mg/LTOXID9 72,217,2003
DNA adductlymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)4800 mg/LBICHAW 21,771,1982
DNA adductHeLa cell/human10 mg/L/24HEVHPAZ 110,789,2002
DNA adductintratracheal/rat5 mg/kgEVHPAZ 110,789,2002
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human15 µmol/L/2HMUREAV 586,124,2005
DNA Damageinhalation/rat0.04 µg/L/5D/3W- intermittentTOXID9 72,299,2003
DNA Damageovary/hamster10 mg/LCRNGDP 3,657,1982
DNA Damageliver/rat3 mmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA Damagelung/mouse300 µmol/LMUREAV 420,85,1998
DNA Damageinhalation/mouse24 mg/m3/2HMUREAV 420,85,1998
DNA Damageother cell types/mouse300 µmol/LMUREAV 420,85,1998
Dominant Lethal Test/Other microorganisms5 mg/LENMUDM 8,621,1986
morphological transformfibroblast/human10 µmol/LCNREA8 47,3815,1987
morphological transformkidney/hamster10 mg/LTECSDY 12,185,1986
morphological transformembryo/hamster5 µmol/plateTOXID9 1,132,1981
morphological transformother cell types/rat1 mg/LMUREAV 300,179,1993
morphological transformembryo/mouse1 µg/LCNREA8 41,4136,1981
morphological transformother cell types/human300 µg/L/24HTXAPA9 192,201,2003
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsembryo/rat10 µmol/LMUREAV 420,85,1998
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human1 mg/LCNREA8 41,4136,1981
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisembryo/hamster10 mg/LCALEDQ 17,273,1983

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intramuscular/rat 80 mg/kg (6D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXAPA9 43,381,1978
intrarenal/rat 50 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)50WKA3 -,399,1983

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 27 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
EJCBDN 19,276,1979
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ACLSCP 18,353,1988
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Endocrine: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-453,1996
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 970 µg/m3/6H/76W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JNCIAM 54,1165,1975
intramuscular/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
AEMBAP 91,57,1978
intramuscular/hamster toxic dose: 40 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
AEMBAP 91,57,1978
intramuscular/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 22,158,1962
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 10 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CRNGDP 4,461,1983
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 229 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
IAPUDO 53,127,1984
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 115 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
CRNGDP 4,275,1983
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CRNGDP 8,1005,1987
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 4800 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CRNGDP 4,461,1983
intrapleural/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
55DXAE -,37,1985
intrarenal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
LAINAW 35,71,1976
intrarenal/rat toxic dose: 23 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
JEPTDQ 2(6),1511,1979
intrarenal/rat toxic dose: 45 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
JEPTDQ 2(6),1511,1979
intratesticular/rat toxic dose: 40 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
PAACA3 18,52,1977
intratesticular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
PAACA3 18,52,1977
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
FEPRA7 39,330,1980
multiple/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 272 gm/kg/18W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
AEMBAP 91,57,1978
ocular/rat toxic dose: 10 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors
IOVSDA 22,768,1982
ocular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2500 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors
NTIS** DOE/EV/03140-5
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
CNREA8 38,268,1978
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJCREP 79,212,1988

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intramuscular/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: TumorsTOXID9 44,141,2005
intramuscular/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgSkin: After topical application: Primary irritationTOXID9 44,141,2005
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 102 µg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JOHYAY 8,565,1908
intratracheal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mg/kgENVRAL 40,313,1986
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >5 gm/kgSchF## 16MAY1986

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 29872 µg/m3/6H/12D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXCYAC 50,145,1988
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1800 µg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
FAATDF 12,584,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 mg/m3/3W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 72,299,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 14732 µg/m3/6H/12D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 50,145,1988
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1800 µg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 12,584,1989

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3 (inhal)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.2 mg(Ni)/m3 (inhal)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 11,75,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 49,257,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWACLSCP 3,156,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTXAV 9,105,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85DHAX Ni,168,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPEXTAR 12,102,1969
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDICHAK 54,527,1968
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPAPOAC 23,135,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,220,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,92,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,183,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,743,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,213,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,31,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3DTLVS* 3,178,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 1 mg(Ni)/m3, C1 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 0.01 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.01 mg/m3, carc, sen, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (fume and dust), carcinogen, sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.25 mg(Ni)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.05 mg(Ni)/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.01 mg(Ni)/m3 (total dust), Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.05 mg(Ni)/m3, carc 1, inhal, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.5 mg(Ni)/m3, carc, skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO NICKEL, INORGANIC-air10H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.015 mg(Ni)/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);clear evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);no evidence:mouse
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
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