CDC logo, Safer Healthier People  CDC HomeCDC SearchCDC Health Topics A-Z
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Search NIOSH  |  NIOSH Home  |  NIOSH Topics  |  Site Index  |  Databases and Information Resources  |  NIOSH Products  |  Contact Us






Nickel sulfide (3:2)

RTECS #: QR9800000

CAS #: 12035-72-2


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 240.25 MF: Ni3S2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Nickel sesquisulfide
  2. Nickel subsulfide
  3. Nickel subsulphide
  4. Nickel sulphide
  1. Nickel tritadisulphide
  2. Trinickel disulphide
  3. alpha - Nickel sulfide (3:2) crystalline


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 5 mg/L TXAPA9 84,278,1986
cytogenetic analysis mouse fibroblast 1 mg/L TOXID9 72,217,2003
dominant lethal test other microorganisms 5 mg/L ENMUDM 8,621,1986
DNA adduct human HeLa cell 10 mg/L/24 hour EVHPAZ 110,789,2002
DNA adduct mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 4,800 mg/L BICHAW 21,771,1982
DNA adduct intratracheal
rat
5 mg/kg EVHPAZ 110,789,2002
DNA damage hamster ovary 10 mg/L CRNGDP 3,657,1982
DNA damage human lymphocyte 15 mol/L/2 hour MUREAV 586,124,2005
DNA damage mouse lung 300 mol/L MUREAV 420,85,1998
DNA damage inhalation
mouse
24 mg/m3/2 hour MUREAV 420,85,1998
DNA damage mouse other cell types 300 mol/L MUREAV 420,85,1998
DNA damage rat liver 3 mmol/L SinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA damage inhalation
rat
0.4 g/L/5 day/3 week- intermittent TOXID9 72,299,2003
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster embryo 10 mg/L CALEDQ 17,273,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells rat embryo 10 mol/L MUREAV 420,85,1998
morphological transform hamster kidney 10 mg/L TECSDY 12,185,1986
morphological transform hamster embryo 5 mol/plate TOXID9 1,132,1981
morphological transform human fibroblast 10 mol/L CNREA8 47,3815,1987
morphological transform human other cell types 300 g/L/24 hour TXAPA9 192,201,2003
morphological transform mouse embryo 1 g/L CNREA8 41,4136,1981
morphological transform rat other cell types 1 mg/L MUREAV 300,179,1993
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 1 mg/L CNREA8 41,4136,1981


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg (6 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXAPA9 43,381,1978
intrarenal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) 50WKA3 -,399,1983


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Endocrine: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-453,1996
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 970 g/m3/6 hour/76 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JNCIAM 54,1165,1975
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ACLSCP 18,353,1988
implant
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 27 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
EJCBDN 19,276,1979
intramuscular
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
AEMBAP 91,57,1978
intramuscular
hamster
toxic dose : 40 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
AEMBAP 91,57,1978
intramuscular
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 22,158,1962
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 115 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
CRNGDP 4,275,1983
intramuscular
rat
toxic dose : 229 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
IAPUDO 53,127,1984
intramuscular
rat
toxic dose : 10 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CRNGDP 4,461,1983
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CRNGDP 8,1005,1987
intramuscular
rat
toxic dose : 4,800 g/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CRNGDP 4,461,1983
intrapleural
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
55DXAE -,37,1985
intrarenal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
LAINAW 35,71,1976
intrarenal
rat
toxic dose : 23 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
JEPTDQ 2(6),1511,1979
intrarenal
rat
toxic dose : 45 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
JEPTDQ 2(6),1511,1979
intratesticular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
PAACA3 18,52,1977
intratesticular
rat
toxic dose : 40 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
PAACA3 18,52,1977
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
FEPRA7 39,330,1980
multiple
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 272 gm/kg/18 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
AEMBAP 91,57,1978
ocular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,500 g/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors
NTIS** DOE/EV/03140-5
ocular
rat
toxic dose : 10 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors
IOVSDA 22,768,1982
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
CNREA8 38,268,1978
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJCREP 79,212,1988


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intramuscular
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors TOXID9 44,141,2005
intramuscular
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation TOXID9 44,141,2005
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 102 g/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JOHYAY 8,565,1908
intratracheal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mg/kg N/R ENVRAL 40,313,1986
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >5 gm/kg N/R SchF## 16MAY1986


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 29,872 g/m3/6 hour/12 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXCYAC 50,145,1988
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,800 g/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
FAATDF 12,584,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 14,732 g/m3/6 hour/12 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 50,145,1988
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,800 g/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 12,584,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 mg/m3/3 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 72,299,2003


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3 (inhalable) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 11,75,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 49,257,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ACLSCP 3,156,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTXAV 9,105,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85DHAX Ni,168,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PEXTAR 12,102,1969
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DICHAK 54,527,1968
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PAPOAC 23,135,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,220,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,92,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,183,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,743,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,213,2007


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3 DTLVS* 3,178,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, Skin, Carcinogen (insoluble compounds), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 1 mg(Ni)/m3, continuous1 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 0.01 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (fume and dust), carcinogen, sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3, sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.25 mg(Ni)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.05 mg(Ni)/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Ni)/m3 (total dust), Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.05 mg(Ni)/m3, Carcinogen, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO NICKEL, INORGANIC-air Carcinogen;
10 hour time-weighted average 0.015 mg(Ni)/m3
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used to make stainless steel
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);clear evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);no evidence:mouse
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

50WKA3 "Reproduction and Developmental Toxicity of Metals, Proceedings of a Joint Meeting, Rochester, 1982," Clarkson, T.W., et al., eds., New York, Plenum Pub. Corp., 1983
55DXAE "Progress in Nickel Toxicology, Proceedings of the International Conference on Nickel Metabolism and Toxicology, 3rd, 1984," Brown, S.S., and F.W. Sunderman, Jr., eds., Oxford, UK, Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., 1985
85DHAX "Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants Series," Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1972-77
ACLSCP Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science. (1833 Delancey Pl., Philadelphia, PA 19103) V.1- 1971-
AEMBAP Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.1- 1967-
BICHAW Biochemistry. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57136, West End Stn., Washington, DC 20037) V.1- 1962-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
DICHAK Diseases of the Chest. (Chicago, IL) V.1-56, 1935-69. For publisher information, see CHETBF.
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EJCBDN European Journal of Cell Biology. (Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Postfach 40, D-7000, Stuttgart l, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.19- 1979-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
FEPRA7 Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87.
HBTME*
IAPUDO IARC Publications. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.27- 1979-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IOVSDA Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.16- 1977-
JEPTDQ Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology. (Park Forest South, IL) V.1-5(3), 1977-81(?). For publisher information, see JEPOEC.
JJCREP Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. BV, POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.76- 1985-
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
JOHYAY Journal of Hygiene. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 32 E. 57th St., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 1901-
LAINAW Laboratory Investigation. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1952-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PAACA3 Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research. (Waverly Press, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1954-
PAPOAC Patologia Polska. (Ars Polona, POB 1001, 00-068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.1- 1950-
PEXTAR Progress in Experimental Tumor Research. (S. Karger AG, Postfach CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1960-
SchF## Personal Communication from F.W. Schaller, Inco Ltd., Park 80 West Plaza Two, Saddle Brook, NJ 07662, May 16, 1986
SinJF# Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982
TECSDY Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. (Gordon & Breach Science Pub. Inc., 1 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.3(3/4)- 1981-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-

Used to make stainless steel

NIOSH PROFILE (PETROLEUM REFINING), FIRL, 4/78

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

NIOSH Home |  NIOSH Search  |  Site Index  |  Topic List |  Contact Us