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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Methyl sulfoxide

RTECS #

PV6210000

CAS #

67-68-5

Updated

July 2013

Molecular Weight

78.14

Molecular Formula

C2H6OS

Synonyms

A 10846
Deltan
Demasorb
Demavet
Demeso
Demsodrox
Dermasorb
Dimethyl sulfoxide
Dimethyl sulphoxide
Dimexide
Dipirartril-tropico
DMS-70
DMS-90
DMSO
Dolicur
Domoso
Dromisol
Durasorb
Gamasol 90
Hyadur
Infiltrina
M 176
Methane, sulfinylbis-
Methylsulfinylmethane
NSC-763
Rimso-50
Somipront
SQ 9453
Sulfinylbis(methane)
Syntexan
Topsym

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mgTXAPA9 39,129,1977
eye /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,1044,1986
eye /rabbit 100 mg mildENTOX* 51,-,2005
eye /rabbit 0.1 mL mildHPV212 -,-,2003
skin /rabbit 100 mg mildENTOX* 51,-,2005
skin /rabbit 10 mg/24H open irritation test mildAIHAAP 23,95,1962
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,1044,1986

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat25 gm/kg/5DTCMUD8 1,141,1980
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/mouse93 gm/LMUREAV 222,191,1989
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster19 pphMUREAV 88,397,1981
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster1 pphMUREAV 42,109,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat25 mL/kg/5D- intermittentHPV212 -,-,2003
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human5 pph (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagesperm/human1 pph (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human1 pph (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagesperm/human2.5 pph (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse75 mmol/kgCRNGDP 5,319,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse1 mole/LMUTAEX 3,193,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium25 pph (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 303,127,1993
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli551 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 130,97,1984
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms111 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step)HEREAY 99,209,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae8 pph (-enzymatic activation step)BBRCA9 49,1336,1972
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1400 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 45,309,1977
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium70 gm/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/human140 mmol/LPNASA6 79,1171,1982
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli6200 ppmMUREAV 263,107,1991
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae118 gm/LMUREAV 224,31,1989
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster700 ppmMUREAV 259,147,1991

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse 210 gm/kg (6-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ANYAA9 141,110,1967
intraperitoneal/mouse 5500 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
AUCMBJ 61,131,1973
intraperitoneal/mouse 8250 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)AUCMBJ 61,131,1973
intraperitoneal/hamster 5500 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
JEEMAF 16,49,1966
intraperitoneal/hamster 4400 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
LANCAO 1,208,1966
intraperitoneal/rat 56 gm/kg (6-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: AbortionANYAA9 141,110,1967
intraperitoneal/rat 6600 mg/kg (7-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)ZPPLBF 116,131,1977
intraperitoneal/rat 20 mL/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
HPV212 -,-,2003
intraperitoneal/rat 70 gm/kg (6-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
HPV212 -,-,2003
intraperitoneal/hamster 5500 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
HPV212 -,-,2003
intravenous/hamster 2500 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
JEEMAF 16,49,1966
intravenous/hamster 2500 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesJEEMAF 16,49,1966
intravenous/mouse 240 gm/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)COREAF 260,327,1965
oral/hamster 11 gm/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXAPA9 15,152,1969
oral/rat 50000 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
HPV212 -,-,2003
oral/mouse 16 mg/kg (5-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
RCOCB8 82,371,1993
subcutaneous/rat 30750 mg/kg (8-10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
PSEBAA 125,567,1967

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 65340 mg/kg/66W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
GTPZAB 28(5),39,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 59 gm/kg/81W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
GTPZAB 28(5),39,1984
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 66 gm/kg/66W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
GTPZAB 28(5),39,1984
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 220 gm/kg/82W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
GTPZAB 28(5),39,1984

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Hamster, ovary Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 pph/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysFCTOD7 50,612,2012
In Vitro/Hamster, ovary Inhibitor Concentration Low: 2 pph/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.FCTOD7 50,612,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 523 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.2 pph/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.FCTOD7 49,1578,2011
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >55000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >55000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >55000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >55000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >55000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >55000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >55000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >55000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >1600 mg/m3/4HHPV212 -,-,2003
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/m3/40HHPV212 -,-,2003
intracerebral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 µL/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Analgesia
PHMREP 57,419,2008
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2234.8 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTXCYAC 218,75,2006
intraperitoneal/guinea pig Lethal dose: >5500 mg/kgJPPMAB 15,688,1963
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
BPBLEO 29,1618,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)BPBLEO 29,1618,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)JAPTO* 27,25,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2500 mg/kgRPTOAN 35,300,1972
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changesANYAA9 -,325,1975
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEGTOLED5 157,221,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 147,153,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Behavioral: Changes in REM sleep (human)
TOLED5 157,221,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
NRTXDN 28,161,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8200 mg/kgFCTOD7 22,665,1984
intravenous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)ARZNAD 28,1571,1978
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2500 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
CNCRA6 31,7,1963
intravenous/man lowest published toxic dose: 606 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified
LANCAO 2,1004,1980
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3100 mg/kgEye: Hemorrhage

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
TXAPA9 15,74,1969
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5750 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
HPV212 -,-,2003
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3100 mg/kgHPV212 -,-,2003
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5360 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
HPV212 -,-,2003
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5360 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TXAPA9 7,104,1965
oral/chicken lethal dose (50 percent kill): 12 gm/kgJPPMAB 15,688,1963
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): >10 gm/kgANYAA9 141,96,1967
oral/guinea pig Lethal dose: >11 gm/kgJPPMAB 15,688,1963
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 21400 mg/kgGISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7920 mg/kgCHTPBA 3,10,1968
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 21.4 gm/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
HPV212 -,-,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Analgesia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
PHMREP 57,419,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10.91 mL/kgEndocrine: Hypoglycemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
HETOEA 22,99,2003
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 28300 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
HPV212 -,-,2003
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14500 mg/kgEye: Hemorrhage

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
TXAPA9 15,74,1969
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14.5 gm/kgEye: Other eye effects

Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation
HPV212 -,-,2003
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17400 mg/kgUSXXAM #6673157
oral/wild bird lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgTXAPA9 21,315,1972
skin/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50000 mg/kgHPV212 -,-,2003
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 40000 mg/kgHPV212 -,-,2003
skin/woman lowest published toxic dose: 1800 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Blood: Other changes
VHTODE 40,87,1998
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 800 µL/kgBehavioral: Analgesia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
PHMREP 57,419,2008
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria
ANYAA9 141,96,1967
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 12 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
ARZNAD 14,1050,1964
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 gm/L/144HBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TIVIEQ 102,162,2011
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 12 gm/kgUSXXAM #4767763
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1300 mg/kgNTIS** AD-A159-418

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.964 gm/m3/90D- intermittentSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritativeTOXID9 60,326,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2.783 gm/m3/90D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsTOXID9 60,326,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.310 gm/m3/28D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleenTOXID9 60,326,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 87.5 gm/kg/5W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)HPV212 -,-,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mL/kg/10D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHPV212 -,-,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 gm/kg/7D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHPV212 -,-,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 192 gm/kg/4W- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 7,104,1965
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3600 mg/kg/10D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerveTOLED5 132,117,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mL/kg/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)BJPCBM 139,787,2003
intravenous/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 57600 mg/kg/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 7,104,1965
intravenous/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/9D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Blood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia
HPV212 -,-,2003
ocular/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 250 µg/kg/30D- intermittentEye: Other eye effectsJTOTDO 2,193,1983
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 6570 mL/kg/2Y- intermittentEye: Other eye effects

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 3,143,1975
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 528000 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentEye: Changes in refraction

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased
HPV212 -,-,2003
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 34 mL/kg/68D- intermittentEye: Other eye effectsHPV212 -,-,2003
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 4864 gm/kg/78W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTXAPA9 16,606,1970
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 5346000 mg/kg/72W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV212 -,-,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 140 gm/kg/10W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV212 -,-,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1070 gm/kg/13W- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
ARZNAD 14,1050,1964
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3564000 mg/kg/72W- intermittentEye: Changes in refraction

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV212 -,-,2003
skin/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 389 gm/kg/17W- continuousEye: Changes in refraction

Eye: Other eye effects
JPETAB 170,364,1969
skin/pig lowest published toxic dose: 4698 mL/kg/58W- intermittentEye: Changes in refraction

Behavioral: Fluid intake
TXCYAC 3,143,1975
skin/pig lowest published toxic dose: 133650 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEye: Other eye effectsHPV212 -,-,2003
skin/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 150000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentEye: Other eye effects

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
HPV212 -,-,2003

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWANYAA9 243,98,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 1(1),93,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARZNAD 17,1553,1967
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,135,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBCPCA6 64,1035,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,269,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 23,504,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJOPAA 138,639,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,355,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMCPT* 2,151,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 19,251,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,51,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPHREP* 61,225,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLREV* 3,71,1989
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCCACL* 17,483,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDERCL* 27,289,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 50 ppm (160 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 50 ppm (160 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDshort term exposure limit 0.01 ppm (0.052 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 50 ppm (160 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 50 ppm (150 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 150 ppm (500 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 50 ppm (160 mg/m3), KZG-week 100 ppm (320 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 150 mg/m3, Skin, 2003

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 80564; Number of Industries 29; Total Number of Facilities 3507; Number of Occupations 40; Total Number of Employees Exposed 44947; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 16837
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 80564; Number of Industries 11; Total Number of Facilities 476; Number of Occupations 25; Total Number of Employees Exposed 22461

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Aspergillus-recombination; Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster-reciprocal translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Rodent dominant lethal; B subtilis rec assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Histidine reversion-Ames test; In vitro SCE-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-aneuploidy; E coli polA with S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: SHE-clonal assay; Cell transform.-mouse embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Aspergillus-aneuploidy; S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
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