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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Mercury(II) chloride

RTECS #

OV9100000

CAS #

7487-94-7

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

271.49

Molecular Formula

Cl2Hg

Synonyms

Abavit B
Bichloride of mercury
Bichlorure de mercure (French)
Calochlor
Chlorid rtutnaty (Czech)
Chlorure mercurique (French)
Cloruro di mercurio (Italian)
Corrosive mercury chloride
Corrosive sublimate
Dichloromercury
Fungchex
Mercuric bichloride
Mercuric chloride
Mercury bichloride
Mercury dichloride
Mercury perchloride
Mercury(2+) chloride
NCI-C60173
Perchloride of mercury
Quecksilber chlorid (German)
Sublimat (Czech)
Sublimate
Sulem
Sulema (Russian)
TL 898

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 50 µg/24H severe28ZPAK -,12,1972
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H severe28ZPAK -,12,1972

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysis/other insects1 µg/LCYTOAN 53,263,1988
Cytogenetic Analysisparenteral/other insects12500 µg/kgENECEV 4,320,1989
Cytogenetic AnalysisHeLa cell/human10 mg/LJJEMAG 39,47,1969
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human2 µmol/LMUREAV 340,175,1996
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse3 mg/kgFCTOD7 29,777,1991
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/hamster6400 µg/kgTJADAB 25,381,1982
Cytogenetic Analysismultiple/other fish0.081 mg/L/24HMUREAV 678,7,2009
DNA Damageliver/human1 µmol/LMUREAV 726,109,2011
DNA Damageother cell types/human1 µmol/l/3HMUREAV 654,22,2008
DNA Damageother cell types/chicken3 µmol/LTECSDY 12,173,1986
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)33 pphPNASA6 67,1390,1970
DNA Damageoral/rat0.0054 mg/kgTXCYAC 167,191,2001
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse100 µmol/LBCPCA6 24,489,1975
DNA Damageembryo/mouse50 nmol/LMUREAV 124,163,1983
DNA Damagelung/hamster10 µmol/LTECSDY 12,173,1986
DNA Damageovary/hamster2500 nmol/L/1H-continuousPAACA3 24,74,1983
DNA Damageovary/hamster25 µmol/L/1H-continuousBBRCA9 108,614,1982
DNA DamageAscites tumor/rat500 µmol/LJBCHA3 261,3370,1986
DNA Damageembryo/rat5 µmol/LMUREAV 124,163,1983
DNA Damageleukocyte/human5 µmol/LMUREAV 470,19,2000
DNA Damageleukocyte/human3500 nmol/LMUREAV 468,93,2000
DNA Damage/Escherichia coli33 pphPNASA6 67,1390,1970
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms33 pphPNASA6 67,1390,1970
DNA inhibitionsubcutaneous/rat8 mg/kgCBINA8 67,185,1988
DNA inhibitionovary/hamster40 µmol/LCBINA8 18,205,1977
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse1 mg/kgJPETAB 194,171,1975
DNA inhibitionother cell types/mouse50 µmol/LTXAPA9 53,24,1980
DNA inhibitionsperm/mouse10 µmol/LJPETAB 194,171,1975
DNA inhibitionother cell types/mouse10 µmol/LEXMPA6 41,371,1984
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/mouse100 nmol/LTXCYAC 36,297,1985
DNA inhibitionkidney/cattle10 µmol/LAECTCV 14,509,1985
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis50 mmol/LMUREAV 77,109,1980
Dominant Lethal Testoral/rat250 ng/kgMUREAV 124,163,1983
Dominant Lethal Testunreported route/rat2500 µg/kgCYGEDX 16(2),25,1982
Dominant Lethal Testintraperitoneal/mouse2 mg/kgMUREAV 30,365,1975
heritable translocation testintraperitoneal/mouse2 mg/kgMUREAV 30,365,1975
micronucleus testlung/hamster0.03 µmol/LMUREAV 563,97,2004
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster0.02 µmol/L/18HTOLED5 140-141,75,2003
micronucleus testmultiple/other fish10 µg/L/2D-continuousFCTOD7 46,352,2008
micronucleus testmultiple/other fish5 µg/L/4D-continuousFCTOD7 46,352,2008
micronucleus testlung/hamster25 µmol/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,709,2011
micronucleus testlung/hamster3 µmol/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,709,2011
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human5 µmol/LMUREAV 340,175,1996
micronucleus testleukocyte/other fish2 µg/LMUREAV 320,157,1994
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species12 ppbMUREAV 292,83,1993
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species1 ppbMUREAV 292,83,1993
morphological transformembryo/hamster50 µmol/LCNREA8 39,193,1979
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse1 µg/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 37,231,2001
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse400 µg/LEMMUEG 12,85,1988
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse6 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)JTEHD6 9,367,1982
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)BECTA6 40,597,1988
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/mouse10 µmol/LBCPCA6 24,489,1975
other mutation test systemsoral/mouse3 mg/kgFCTOD7 29,777,1991
other mutation test systemsovary/hamster2700 µg/LMUREAV 290,281,1993
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/human2 µmol/LMUREAV 340,175,1996
other mutation test systemssubcutaneous/rat8 mg/kgCBINA8 67,185,1988
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae15 µmol/LMUTAEX 1,21,1986
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster1100 nmol/LENMUDM 7,381,1985
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/hamster1 mg/kgNTIS** DE83-770037
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/mouse1 µmol/LTXAPA9 53,24,1980

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 2720 ng/m3/24H (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GISAAA 46(5),67,1981
inhalation/rat 19540 ng/m3/24H (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
GISAAA 46(5),67,1981
inhalation/rat 276 ng/m3/24H (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)GISAAA 46(5),67,1981
inhalation/mouse 230 µg/m3/4H (9-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
CMLMDW 125,65,1984
inhalation/mouse 230 µg/m3/4H (9-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemCMLMDW 125,65,1984
intraperitoneal/mouse 30 mg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductIJPPAZ 26,246,1982
intraperitoneal/guinea pig 60 mg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductIJPPAZ 26,246,1982
intraperitoneal/hamster 30 mg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductIJPPAZ 26,246,1982
intraperitoneal/rat 60 mg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductIJPPAZ 26,246,1982
intraperitoneal/rat 4500 µg/kg (90D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOLED5 27,45,1985
intraperitoneal/rat 4500 µg/kg (90D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
IJEBA6 25,542,1987
intraperitoneal/mouse 31.5 mg/kg (1-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 29,360,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse 10.5 mg/kg (1-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicNETEEC 29,360,2007
intratesticular/rat 21719 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
JRPFA4 7,21,1964
intravenous/rat 1069 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemARTODN 58,243,1986
intravenous/rat 1069 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)ARTODN 58,243,1986
intravenous/mouse 2030 µg/kg (1D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)TJADAB 33,231,1986
intravenous/mouse 3384 µg/kg (1D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTJADAB 32,27B,1985
intravenous/mouse 1353 µg/kg (5D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)BECTA6 49,541,1992
intravenous/mouse 2706 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
BECTA6 49,541,1992
oral/rat 352 mg/kg (7D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NRTXDN 23,197,2002
oral/rat 40 mg/kg (7D prior to copulation/1-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NRTXDN 23,197,2002
oral/mouse 30 mg/kg (61D male/37D prior to copulation/3W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)FCTOD7 42,571,2004
oral/rat 62 mg/kg (5-15D preg/4W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsFCTOD7 43,77,2005
oral/rat 0.4 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsFCTOD7 43,77,2005
oral/rat 1.6 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effectsFCTOD7 43,77,2005
oral/mouse 25 mg/kg (40D male/16D pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
TOXID9 48,388,1999
oral/mouse 49 mg/kg (40D male/16D pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TOXID9 48,388,1999
oral/woman 50 µg/kg (10W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: AbortionAJOGAH 80,145,1960
oral/rat 126 mg/kg (84D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TOXID9 54,33,2000
oral/rat 240 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 25(1),26A,1982
oral/rat 120 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TJADAB 25(1),26A,1982
oral/rat 2470 µg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)CUSCAM 55,734,1986
oral/rat 919 mg/kg (12W male/2W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
BESCE5 9,437,1996
oral/rat 120 mg/kg (60D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
FCTOD7 47,1600,2009
oral/rat 450 mg/kg (90D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)REPTED 28,81,2009
oral/rat 900 mg/kg (90D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)REPTED 28,81,2009
oral/rat 60.2 mg/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary systemFCTOD7 50,2382,2012
parenteral/hamster 8 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaBIREBV 8,378,1973
subcutaneous/rat 5430 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductJRPFA4 7,21,1964
subcutaneous/rat 80 mg/kg (13-22D preg/10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** DE85-015022
subcutaneous/rat 400 µg/kg (11-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusWDZAEK 6,38,1992
subcutaneous/mouse 800 µg/kg (5-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 78,97,2004
subcutaneous/hamster 8660 µg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: OogenesisTJADAB 25,381,1982
subcutaneous/hamster 24 mg/kg (3D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityBIREBV 11,180,1974
subcutaneous/hamster 34648 µg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: OogenesisSEIJBO 18,166,1978
subcutaneous/mouse 5430 µg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductJRPFA4 7,21,1964

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5150 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTIS** PB94-101649
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2575 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTIS** PB94-101649

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 13 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 4 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 12 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 0.5 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 18 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 19 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 8 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 11 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 41 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 36 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 26 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 26 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (80 percent kill): 81 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (80 percent kill): 70 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (80 percent kill): 43 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (80 percent kill): 41 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 25 µmol/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 250,78,2011
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TXAPA9 250,78,2011
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 250,78,2011
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.87 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 50 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.JOETD7 134,839,2011
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 25 µmol/L/10MNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metalsTXAPA9 250,78,2011
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 7.5 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TXCYAC 274,1,2010
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 2.5 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 246,66,2010
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 25 µmol/L/10MNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metalsTXAPA9 250,78,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.13 µmol/L/4MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currentsTXAPA9 245,191,2010
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 28 µmol/L/60MBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesteraseTXAPA9 245,191,2010
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 µmol/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.TXAPA9 245,191,2010
In Vitro/jkhInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 50 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.JOETD7 134,839,2011
In Vitro/jpfInhibitor Concentration Low: 25 µmol/L/10MNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metalsTXAPA9 250,78,2011
In Vitro/Mouse, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 35 µmol/L/26HReproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TIVIEQ 7,751,1993
In Vitro/Mouse, neuroblastom Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3.4 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 7,353,1993
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.019 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,537,1993
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 80 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.JOETD7 134,839,2011
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 4 mg/L/48HReproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
TIVIEQ 2,189,1988
In Vitro/Rat, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 20 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell counting

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 286,48,2011
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 100 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.JOETD7 134,839,2011
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 0.007 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.026 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (75 percent kill): 0.058 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 300 mg/m3/10MNDRC** No.9-4-1-9,1943
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 756.847 mg/kg/30MBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatumTOLED5 178,181,2008
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.64 mg/kgBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatumTXCYAC 238,140,2007
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.11 µg/kg/60MBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatumBJMRDK 40,1361,2007
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 51 µg/kg/60MBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
BJMRDK 40,1361,2007
intracerebral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 120 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionNRTXDN 32,350,2011
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 µg/kgVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
NRTXDN 32,350,2011
intramuscular/frog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7579 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CBPCEE 85,253,1986
intramuscular/quail lethal dose (50 percent kill): 34 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia
JTEHD6 20,105,1987
intramuscular/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7300 µg/kgJPETAB 87,119,1946
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 345 mg/kgAEHLAU 11,201,1965
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgLiver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 45,2412,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3900 µg/kgPCJOAU 25,891,1991
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOSCF2 74,215,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 50,2325,2012
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 249,114,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TXAPA9 249,114,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 136 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,9,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
FCTOD7 47,2834,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 286,48,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 184,165,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSNETEEC 26,131,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3210 µg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)PSDTAP 12,247,1971
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
PHTOEH 93,290,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionFCTOD7 44,1006,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg(Hg)/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 27,43,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg(Hg)/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JAPTO* 26,187,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve
JJATDK 26,374,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerveJJATDK 26,374,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TOLED5 180S,S58,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
PHTOEH 93,290,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 90,92,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TOLED5 166,168,2006
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 2710 µg/kgJPETAB 44,423,1932
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4992 µg/kgQJPPAL 21,364,1948
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Cardiac: Change in rate

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
EXMPA6 50,281,1989
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 2 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JPETAB 35,343,1929
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTOPADD 36,397,2008
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 146,9,2003
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 147,121,2004
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1272 µg/kgARTODN 58,243,1986
multiple/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/m3Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)TOLED5 140-141,403,2003
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kgFDWU** -,-,1931
oral/frog lowest published lethal dose: 2424 mg/kgFDWU** -,-,1931
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 14.3 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures
HBPTO* 2,1371,2001
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 29 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from duodeum

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NEJMAG 244,459,1951
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 29 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
MJAUAJ 2,125,1978
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 14286 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
YAKUD5 41,2383,1999
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 143 mg/kgBehavioral: Excitement

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
IGSBAL 2,48,1942
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 57 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
JJTOEX 8,157,1995
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
CTOXAO 11,309,1977
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 86 mg/kgVascular: Change in plasma or blood volume

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes
JTCTDW 26,189,1988
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
GISAAA 51(1),76,1986
oral/pigeon lowest published lethal dose: 2200 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1389,1935
oral/quail lethal dose (50 percent kill): 36 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia
JTEHD6 20,105,1987
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kgFDWU** -,-,1931
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
JAPTO* 24,129,2004
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 mg/kgPEMNDP 9,550,1991
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria

Blood: Other changes
HETOEA 11,53,1992
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
AJOGAH 80,145,1960
skin/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 345 mg/kgAEHLAU 11,201,1965
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 41 mg/kgGTPZAB 25(7),27,1981
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kgFDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TXCYAC 172,35,2002
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4500 µg/kgNEZAAQ 34,193,1979
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 76,383,2002
subcutaneous/pigeon lowest published lethal dose: 1100 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1389,1935
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14 mg/kgJJEMAG 39,47,1969
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4615 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
FCTOD7 42,17,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 46,212,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BCLPT* 100,398,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
BCLPT* 103,109,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/m3Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressedTIHEEC 23,403,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7996 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
ABBIA4 248,467,1986
Tank with water/Crab lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 mg/L/48HEndocrine: HyperglycemiaEESADV 74,279,2011
Tank with water/Killifish lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 µg/L/8HBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes
TIVIEQ 103,129,2011
Tank with water/Lobster lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 32.8 µg/L/48HLiver: Other changesEESADV 73,1875,2010
Tank with water/Lobster lowest published toxic concentration: 20 µg/L/48HReproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalEESADV 73,1875,2010
Tank with water/Lobster lowest published toxic concentration: 40 µg/L/48HReproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EESADV 73,1875,2010
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 20 µg/L/24HBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
NRTXDN 31,291,2010
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 20 µg/L 24HBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
NRTXDN 32,116,2011
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 7253 µg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Increased immune responseTXAPA9 197,147,2004
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
TOXID9 78,75,2004

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3520 mg/m3/24H/17W- continuousBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
GISAAA 49(9),11,1984
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 6,319,1980
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5950 µg/kg/17W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
GTPZAB 28(5),46,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 44955 µg/kg/45D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
ZYYZEW 1,147,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kg/6D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferasesTOERD9 1,263,1978
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/15D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
BBIADT 45,949,1986
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mg/kg/15D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
PHREP* 60,199,2008
intravenous/domestic animal lowest published toxic dose: 250 µg/kg/5D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria
COVEAZ 76,306,1986
intravenous/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg/13W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTXAPA9 129,196,1994
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 90,341,2006
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 90,341,2006
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 4260 µg/kg/6W- continuousBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BECTA6 12,46,1974
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/2W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHBPTO* 2,1371,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 94.08 mg/kg/12W- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
EOGRAL 95,92,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 67.2 mg/kg/12W- intermittentBehavioral: Fluid intake

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BPBLEO 23,305,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 320 mg/kg/16D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-408,1993
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg/26W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weightNTPTR* NTP-TR-408,1993
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/2W- continuousBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TXAPA9 225,238,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 109.4 mg/kg/18D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)TOLED5 136,205,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 109.4 mg/kg/17D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)TOLED5 136,205,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15.25 mg/kg/61D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weightFCTOD7 42,571,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 39.5 mg/kg/79D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
FCTOD7 42,571,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/7D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 42,571,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 184.8 mg/kg/22W- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 196,197,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/5W- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)TXCYAC 178,119,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.34 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleenARTODN 77,613,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 67.34 mg/kg/14D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Blood: Changes in spleen

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ARTODN 77,613,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6.8 mg/kg/5W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 29,630,2001
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/5D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTEHD6 20,105,1987
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 44,191,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 89.6 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TXCYAC 172,59,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 520 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesHBPTO* 2,1371,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/60D- continuousEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
BECTA6 43,481,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1287.5 mg/kg/103W- intermittentSkin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** PB94-101649
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/2W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHBPTO* 2,1371,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 412 mg/kg/61D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
EVHPAZ 102(Suppl 3),305,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/4W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 31,125,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 675 mg/kg/27W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHD6 36,319,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/16D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NTP-TR-408,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2600 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
JTEHD6 36,319,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 455 mg/kg/13W- continuousEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 48,49,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 592 mg/kg/50W- continuousCardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
ATSUDG 13,353,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleenINIMP* 1,925,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 64 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
INIMP* 1,925,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/60D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 48,7,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
FCTOD7 47,2834,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/90D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
REPTED 28,81,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
REPTED 28,81,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/90D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightREPTED 28,81,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.12 gm/kg/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOVEFN -,27,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 26.82 mg/kg/180D- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Vascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 26.82 mg/kg/180D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 26.82 mg/kg/180D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 268.2 mg/kg/180D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60.2 mg/kg/20D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 50,2382,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg/20D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeFCTOD7 50,2382,2012
skin/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
ATSUDG 7,522,1984
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 128 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOVEFN (4),24,1996
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 127.8 mg/kg/90D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 639 mg/kg/90D- intermittentCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/30D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOLED5 189,200,2009
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/2W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Luekopenia
FCTOD7 47,1771,2009
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
NETEEC 30,88,2008
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sitesNETEEC 30,88,2008
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TXCYAC 188,233,2003
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 19200 µg/kg/4W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 196,211,2004
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/12W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
TXAPA9 144,163,1997
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 70 µg/kg/15D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)TOXID9 72,376,2003
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.8 mg/kg/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.8 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1216 mg/kg/38W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 76.8 mg/kg/24W- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9.92 mg/kg/31W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 17647 µg/kg/5W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: ProteinuriaTXCYAC 79,119,1993
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kg/21W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
VHTODE 28,305,1986
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg/5D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOLED5 146,17,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/1W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: ProteinuriaEJPHAZ 489,127,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg/2W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)EJPHAZ 489,127,2004
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 227.5 mg/kg/91D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
TOXID9 44,233,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 227.5 mg/kg/91D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOXID9 44,233,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 227.5 mg/kg/91D- intermittentReproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)TOXID9 44,233,2005

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.025 mg(Hg)/m3 (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 58,239,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 58,239,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 58,239,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 182,255,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 2,491,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEPRA7 34,1858,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,83,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 23,331,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 33,215,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 34,301,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBIPHEX 58,325,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,33,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOPADD 32(Suppl. 2),71,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOPADD 33,517,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 4,161,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,675,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,213,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,701,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 32,4,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 726,91,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 746,89,2012

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESCancelledRBREV* -,262,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3DTLWS* 3,22,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.003 ppm (0.025 mg(Hg)/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.025 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.02 mg(Hg)/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.1 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.02 mg(Hg)/m3, skin, sen, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.08 mg(Hg)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.32 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Hg)/m3, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.025 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 0.15 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.2 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.03 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.02 mg(Hg)/m3, KZG-week 0.16 mg(Hg)/m3, inhal, skin, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDshort term exposure limit 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO MERCURY, ARYL AND INORGANIC-airceiling concentration 0.1 mg/m3 (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84274; Number of Industries 24; Total Number of Facilities 2012; Number of Occupations 24; Total Number of Employees Exposed 45491; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 18717
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84274; Number of Industries 22; Total Number of Facilities 1553; Number of Occupations 19; Total Number of Employees Exposed 9791

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-aneuploidy
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; B subtilis rec assay
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);equivocal evidence:mouse,rat
On EPA IRIS database
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