CDC logo, Safer Healthier People  CDC HomeCDC SearchCDC Health Topics A-Z
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Search NIOSH  |  NIOSH Home  |  NIOSH Topics  |  Site Index  |  Databases and Information Resources  |  NIOSH Products  |  Contact Us






Mercury (II) chloride

RTECS #: OV9100000

CAS #: 7487-94-7


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 271.49 MF: Cl2Hg


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Abavit B
  2. Bichloride of mercury
  3. Bichlorure de mercure (French)
  4. Calochlor
  5. Chlorid rtutnaty (Czech)
  6. Chlorure mercurique (French)
  7. Cloruro di mercurio (Italian)
  8. Corrosive mercury chloride
  9. Corrosive sublimate
  10. Dichloromercury
  11. Fungchex
  12. Mercuric bichloride
  13. Mercuric chloride
  1. Mercury bichloride
  2. Mercury dichloride
  3. Mercury perchloride
  4. Mercury (2+) chloride
  5. NCI - C60173
  6. Perchloride of mercury
  7. Quecksilber chlorid (German)
  8. Sublimat (Czech)
  9. Sublimate
  10. Sulem
  11. Sulema (Russian)
  12. TL 898


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
50 g/24 hour severe 28ZPAK -,12,1972
skin
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour severe 28ZPAK -,12,1972


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
hamster
6,400 g/kg TJADAB 25,381,1982
cytogenetic analysis human HeLa cell 10 mg/L JJEMAG 39,47,1969
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 2 mol/L MUREAV 340,175,1996
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
3 mg/kg FCTOD7 29,777,1991
cytogenetic analysis other insects 1 g/L CYTOAN 53,263,1988
cytogenetic analysis parenteral
other insects
12,500 g/kg ENECEV 4,320,1989
dominant lethal test intraperitoneal
mouse
2 mg/kg MUREAV 30,365,1975
dominant lethal test oral
rat
250 ng/kg MUREAV 124,163,1983
dominant lethal test unreported route
rat
2,500 g/kg CYGEDX 16(2),25,1982
DNA damage chicken other cell types 3 mol/L TECSDY 12,173,1986
DNA damage Escherichia coli 33 pph PNASA6 67,1390,1970
DNA damage hamster lung 10 mol/L TECSDY 12,173,1986
DNA damage hamster ovary 2,500 nmol/L/1 hour- continuous PAACA3 24,74,1983
DNA damage hamster ovary 25 mol/L/1 hour- continuous BBRCA9 108,614,1982
DNA damage human leukocyte 5 mol/L MUREAV 470,19,2000
DNA damage human leukocyte 3,500 nmol/L MUREAV 468,93,2000
DNA damage human other cell types 1 mol/l/3 hour MUREAV 654,22,2008
DNA damage mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 33 pph PNASA6 67,1390,1970
DNA damage mouse lymphocyte 100 mol/L BCPCA6 24,489,1975
DNA damage mouse embryo 50 nmol/L MUREAV 124,163,1983
DNA damage other microorganisms 33 pph PNASA6 67,1390,1970
DNA damage rat Ascites tumor 500 mol/L JBCHA3 261,3370,1986
DNA damage rat embryo 5 mol/L MUREAV 124,163,1983
DNA damage oral
rat
0.54 mg/kg TXCYAC 167,191,2001
DNA inhibition cattle kidney 10 mol/L AECTCV 14,509,1985
DNA inhibition hamster ovary 40 mol/L CBINA8 18,205,1977
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
mouse
1 mg/kg JPETAB 194,171,1975
DNA inhibition mouse other cell types 50 mol/L TXAPA9 53,24,1980
DNA inhibition mouse sperm 10 mol/L JPETAB 194,171,1975
DNA inhibition mouse other cell types 10 mol/L EXMPA6 41,371,1984
DNA inhibition mouse lymphocyte 100 nmol/L TXCYAC 36,297,1985
DNA inhibition subcutaneous
rat
8 mg/kg CBINA8 67,185,1988
DNA repair Bacillus subtilis 50 mmol/L MUREAV 77,109,1980
unscheduled DNA synthesis mouse other cell types 1 mol/L TXAPA9 53,24,1980
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 6 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) JTEHD6 9,367,1982
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) BECTA6 40,597,1988
micronucleus test hamster fibroblast 0.2 mol/L/18 hour TOLED5 140-141,75,2003
micronucleus test hamster lung 0.3 mol/L MUREAV 563,97,2004
micronucleus test human lymphocyte 5 mol/L MUREAV 340,175,1996
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
12 ppb MUREAV 292,83,1993
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
1 ppb MUREAV 292,83,1993
micronucleus test other fish leukocyte 2 g/L MUREAV 320,157,1994
micronucleus test multiple
other fish
10 g/L/2 day- continuous FCTOD7 46,352,2008
micronucleus test multiple
other fish
5 g/L/4 day- continuous FCTOD7 46,352,2008
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 400 g/L EMMUEG 12,85,1988
morphological transform hamster embryo 50 mol/L CNREA8 39,193,1979
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 1 g/L/21 day (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 37,231,2001
other mutation test systems hamster ovary 2,700 g/L MUREAV 290,281,1993
other mutation test systems human lymphocyte 2 mol/L MUREAV 340,175,1996
other mutation test systems mouse lymphocyte 10 mol/L BCPCA6 24,489,1975
other mutation test systems oral
mouse
3 mg/kg FCTOD7 29,777,1991
other mutation test systems subcutaneous
rat
8 mg/kg CBINA8 67,185,1988
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 1,100 nmol/L ENMUDM 7,381,1985
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
hamster
1 mg/kg NTIS** DE83-770037
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 15 mol/L MUTAEX 1,21,1986
heritable translocation test intraperitoneal
mouse
2 mg/kg MUREAV 30,365,1975


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 230 g/m3/4 hour (9-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
CMLMDW 125,65,1984
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 230 g/m3/4 hour (9-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system CMLMDW 125,65,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,720 ng/m3/24 hour (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GISAAA 46(5),67,1981
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 19,540 ng/m3/24 hour (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
GISAAA 46(5),67,1981
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 276 ng/m3/24 hour (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow) GISAAA 46(5),67,1981
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct IJPPAZ 26,246,1982
intraperitoneal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct IJPPAZ 26,246,1982
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct IJPPAZ 26,246,1982
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 31.5 mg/kg (1-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 29,360,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg (1-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic NETEEC 29,360,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct IJPPAZ 26,246,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 g/kg (90 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOLED5 27,45,1985
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 g/kg (90 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
IJEBA6 25,542,1987
intratesticular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21,719 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
JRPFA4 7,21,1964
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,030 g/kg (1 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) TJADAB 33,231,1986
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,384 g/kg (1 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities TJADAB 32,27B,1985
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,353 g/kg (5 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) BECTA6 49,541,1992
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,706 g/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
BECTA6 49,541,1992
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,069 g/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system ARTODN 58,243,1986
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,069 g/kg (14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow) ARTODN 58,243,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg (40 day male/16 day prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
TOXID9 48,388,1999
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 49 mg/kg (40 day male/16 day prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TOXID9 48,388,1999
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (61 day male/37 day prior to copulation/3 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth) FCTOD7 42,571,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg (84 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TOXID9 54,33,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 25(1),26A,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TJADAB 25(1),26A,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,470 g/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) CUSCAM 55,734,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 919 mg/kg (12 week male/2 week prior to copulation) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
BESCE5 9,437,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 352 mg/kg (7 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NRTXDN 23,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (7 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NRTXDN 23,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 62 mg/kg (5-15 day pregnant/4 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects FCTOD7 43,77,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects FCTOD7 43,77,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects FCTOD7 43,77,2005
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 50 g/kg (10 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion AJOGAH 80,145,1960
parenteral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina BIREBV 8,378,1973
subcutaneous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 8,660 g/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis TJADAB 25,381,1982
subcutaneous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg (3 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility BIREBV 11,180,1974
subcutaneous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 34,648 g/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis SEIJBO 18,166,1978
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,430 g/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct JRPFA4 7,21,1964
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 800 g/kg (5-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 78,97,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,430 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct JRPFA4 7,21,1964
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg (13-22 day pregnant/10 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** DE85-015022
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 g/kg (11-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus WDZAEK 6,38,1992


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,150 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTIS** PB94-101649
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,575 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTIS** PB94-101649


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.64 mg/kg Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum TXCYAC 238,140,2007
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.11 g/kg/60 minute Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum BJMRDK 40,1361,2007
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 51 g/kg/60 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
BJMRDK 40,1361,2007
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 300 mg/m3/10 minute N/R NDRC** No.9-4-1-9,1943
intramuscular
frog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7,579 g/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CBPCEE 85,253,1986
intramuscular
quail
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 34 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia
JTEHD6 20,105,1987
intramuscular
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7,300 g/kg N/R JPETAB 87,119,1946
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 345 mg/kg N/R AEHLAU 11,201,1965
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,900 g/kg N/R PCJOAU 25,891,1991
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOSCF2 74,215,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Liver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 45,2412,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,210 g/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) PSDTAP 12,247,1971
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 136 g/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,9,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 184,165,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS NETEEC 26,131,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 90,92,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
PHTOEH 93,290,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition FCTOD7 44,1006,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg(Hg)/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 27,43,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg(Hg)/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JAPTO* 26,187,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve
JJATDK 26,374,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve JJATDK 26,374,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) TOLED5 166,168,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
PHTOEH 93,290,2003
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 2,710 g/kg N/R JPETAB 44,423,1932
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,992 g/kg N/R QJPPAL 21,364,1948
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,272 g/kg N/R ARTODN 58,243,1986
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 146,9,2003
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 147,121,2004
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 2 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JPETAB 35,343,1929
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Cardiac: Change in rate

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
EXMPA6 50,281,1989
multiple
non-mammalian species
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/m3 Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) TOLED5 140-141,403,2003
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 2,424 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 29 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from duodeum

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NEJMAG 244,459,1951
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 14.3 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures
HBPTO* 2,1371,2001
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 143 mg/kg Behavioral: Excitement

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
IGSBAL 2,48,1942
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 57 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
JJTOEX 8,157,1995
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
CTOXAO 11,309,1977
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 86 mg/kg Vascular: Change in plasma or blood volume

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes
JTCTDW 26,189,1988
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 29 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
MJAUAJ 2,125,1978
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 14,286 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
YAKUD5 41,2383,1999
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
GISAAA 51(1),76,1986
oral
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 2,200 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1389,1935
oral
quail
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 36 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia
JTEHD6 20,105,1987
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 mg/kg N/R PEMNDP 9,550,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
JAPTO* 24,129,2004
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria

Blood: Other changes
HETOEA 11,53,1992
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
AJOGAH 80,145,1960
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,500 g/kg N/R NEZAAQ 34,193,1979
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 g/kg Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TXCYAC 172,35,2002
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 76,383,2002
subcutaneous
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 1,100 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1389,1935
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14 mg/kg N/R JJEMAG 39,47,1969
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,996 g/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
ABBIA4 248,467,1986
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,615 g/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
FCTOD7 42,17,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 46,212,2008
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
skin
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 345 mg/kg N/R AEHLAU 11,201,1965
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 41 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 25(7),27,1981
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 7,253 g/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 g/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response TXAPA9 197,147,2004
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
TOXID9 78,75,2004


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,520 mg/m3/24 hour/17 week- continuous Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
GISAAA 49(9),11,1984
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 6,319,1980
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,950 g/kg/17 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
GTPZAB 28(5),46,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 44,955 g/kg/45 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
ZYYZEW 1,147,1987
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 g/kg/6 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases TOERD9 1,263,1978
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
BBIADT 45,949,1986
intravenous
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 250 g/kg/5 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria
COVEAZ 76,306,1986
intravenous
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TXAPA9 129,196,1994
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 90,341,2006
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 90,341,2006
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 4,260 g/kg/6 week- continuous Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BECTA6 12,46,1974
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 320 mg/kg/16 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-408,1993
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight NTPTR* NTP-TR-408,1993
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 94.08 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
EOGRAL 95,92,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field HBPTO* 2,1371,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6.8 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 29,630,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 67.2 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Behavioral: Fluid intake

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BPBLEO 23,305,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement) TXCYAC 178,119,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 109.4 mg/kg/18 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement) TOLED5 136,205,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 109.4 mg/kg/17 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement) TOLED5 136,205,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 15.25 mg/kg/61 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight FCTOD7 42,571,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 39.5 mg/kg/79 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
FCTOD7 42,571,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain FCTOD7 42,571,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 184.8 mg/kg/22 week- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 196,197,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4.34 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen ARTODN 77,613,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 67.34 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Blood: Changes in spleen

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ARTODN 77,613,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TXAPA9 225,238,2007
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/5 day- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTEHD6 20,105,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 412 mg/kg/61 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
EVHPAZ 102(Suppl 3),305,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 31,125,1993
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 675 mg/kg/27 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHD6 36,319,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/16 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NTP-TR-408,1993
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,600 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
JTEHD6 36,319,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 455 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 48,49,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 592 mg/kg/50 week- continuous Cardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
ATSUDG 13,353,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
BECTA6 43,481,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,287.5 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** PB94-101649
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field HBPTO* 2,1371,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 520 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes HBPTO* 2,1371,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 89.6 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TXCYAC 172,59,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen INIMP* 1,925,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 64 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
INIMP* 1,925,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 26.82 mg/kg/180 day- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Vascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 26.82 mg/kg/180 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 26.82 mg/kg/180 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 268.2 mg/kg/180 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 44,191,1981
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
TXAPA9 144,163,1997
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12.8 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12.8 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,216 mg/kg/38 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 76.8 mg/kg/24 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 9.92 mg/kg/31 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 109,27,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 70 g/kg/15 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement) TOXID9 72,376,2003
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TXCYAC 188,233,2003
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 19,200 g/kg/4 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 196,211,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17,647 g/kg/5 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria TXCYAC 79,119,1993
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kg/21 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
VHTODE 28,305,1986
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOLED5 146,17,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria EJPHAZ 489,127,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) EJPHAZ 489,127,2004
skin
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 pph/48 hour- continuous Skin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergic AJCDE* 13,3,2002
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 128 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes TOVEFN (4),24,1996
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 127.8 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 639 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TOVEFN (4),24,1996
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 2,800 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
ATSUDG 7,522,1984
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 227.5 mg/kg/91 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
TOXID9 44,233,2005
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 227.5 mg/kg/91 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOXID9 44,233,2005
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 227.5 mg/kg/91 day- intermittent Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated) TOXID9 44,233,2005


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.025 mg(Hg)/m3 (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 58,239,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 58,239,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 58,239,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXAPA9 182,255,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 2,491,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FEPRA7 34,1858,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,83,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 23,331,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 33,215,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 34,301,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BIPHEX 58,325,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,33,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOPADD 32(Suppl. 2),71,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOPADD 33,517,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 4,161,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,675,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,213,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,701,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,515,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Cancelled RBREV* -,262,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3 DTLWS* 3,22,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.003 ppm (0.025 mg(Hg)/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.025 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 1 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.1 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.08 mg(Hg)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.32 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Hg)/m3, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.025 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 0.15 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.2 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.03 mg(Hg)/m3, Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.1 mg(Hg)/m3,KZG- week 0.8 mg(Hg)/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND short term exposure limit 0.05 mg(Hg)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO MERCURY, ARYL AND INORGANIC-air ceiling concentration 0.1 mg/m3 (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 84274;
Number of Industries 22;
Total Number of Facilities 1,553;
Number of Occupations 19;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 9,791
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 84274;
Number of Industries 24;
Total Number of Facilities 2,012;
Number of Occupations 24;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 45,491;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 18,717


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; B subtilis rec assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-aneuploidy
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as dip for bulbs and tubers, for earthworm control, as repellent to ants, roaches, etc.
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);equivocal evidence:mouse,rat


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

28ZPAK "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
ABBIA4 Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.31- 1951-
AECTCV Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 070944) V.1- 1973-
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AJCDE* American Journal of Contact Dermatitis: Official Journal of the American Contact Dermatitis Society (Philadelphia, PA : W.B. Saunders, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) V.1-14 1990-2003.
AJMEAZ American Journal of Medicine. (Technical Pub., 875 Third Ave., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 1946-
AJOGAH American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (C.V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63146) V.1- 1920-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ATSUDG Archives of Toxicology, Supplement. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1978-
BBIADT Biomedica Biochimica Acta. (Akademie-Verlag GmbH, Postfach 1233, Berlin DDR-1086, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.42- 1983-
BBRCA9 Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
BCPCA6 Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1958-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BESCE5 Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. (Academic Press, 525 B St., Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101) V.1- 1988-
BIPHEX Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy (Editions Scientifiques et Medicales Elsevier, Journals Fulfilment Department, 23 rue Linois, F -75724 Paris Cedex 15, France OR Editions Scientifiques et Medicales Elsevier, P.O.BOX 7247-7576, Philadelphia, PA 19170-7576,USA) V. 36- Jan.1982-)
BIREBV Biology of Reproduction. (Soc. for the Study of Reproduction, 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1969-
BJMRDK Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. (Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, 141000 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil) V.14- 1981-
BPBLEO Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2-12-15-201 Shibuya Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.16- 1993-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CBPCEE Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology. (Elsevier Science, 660 White Plains Rd., Tarrytown, NY 10591) V.74- 1983-
CMLMDW Collection de Medecine Legale et de Toxicologie Medicale. (Masson Editeur, 120 Blvd. Saint- Germain, F-75280 Paris Cedex 06, France) No.53- 1970-
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
COVEAZ Cornell Veterinarian. (Cornell Univ. New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY 14853) V.1- 1911-
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
CUSCAM Current Science. (Current Science Assoc., Sadashivanagar P.O., Bangalore 560 080, India) V.1- 1932-
CYGEDX Cytology and Genetics (English Translation). Translation of TGANAK. (Allerton Press Inc., 150 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10011) V.8- 1974-
CYTOAN Cytologia. (Japan Pub. Trading Co. (USA), 1255 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103) V.1- 1929-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8.
EJPHAZ European Journal of Pharmacology. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1967-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENECEV Environment and Ecology. (Environment and Ecology, C/o Dr. S.K. Konar, Dept. of Zoology, Kalyani University, Kalyani 741253, West Bengal, India) V.1- 1983-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EOGRAL European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. (Elsevier Science Pub. BV, POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.3- 1973-
EQSSDX Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. (Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-5, 1975-76. Discontinued.
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
EXMPA6 Experimental and Molecular Pathology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1962-
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FDWU** "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931
FEPRA7 Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
HBTME*
HETOEA Human & Experimental Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 2XS, UK) V.9- 1990-
HTOPA*
HUTOX*
IGSBAL Igaku to Seibutsugaku. Medicine and Biology. (c/o Ogato Igaku Kagaku Kenkyusho, 2-3-5 Bakuro-cho, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103, Japan) V.1- 1942-
IJEBA6 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.1- 1963-
IJPPAZ Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Physiology, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India) V.1- 1957-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
INIMP* International Immunopharmacology (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/intimp) V.1- 2001-
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JBCHA3 Journal of Biological Chemistry. (428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1905-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JJEMAG Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine. (Kinokuniya Book-Stores of America Co., Ltd., West Bldg., Japan Cultural and Trade Center, 1581 Webster St., San Francisco, CA 94115) V.7- 1928-
JJTOEX Japanese Journal of Toxicology. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Hokushin Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101, Japan) V.1- 1988-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JRPFA4 Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 1960-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
MJAUAJ Medical Journal of Australia. (Australasian Medical Pub. Co. Ltd., 71-79 Arundel St., Glebe, N.S.W., Australia) V.1- 1914-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NDRC** National Defense Research Committee, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Progress Report.
NEJMAG New England Journal of Medicine. (Massachusetts Medical Soc., 10 Shattuck St., Boston, MA 02115) V.198- 1928-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NEZAAQ Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene. (Nippon Eisei Gakkai, c/o Kyoto Daigaku Igakubu, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan) V.1- 1946-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PAACA3 Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research. (Waverly Press, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1954-
PCJOAU Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal (English Translation). Translation of KHFZAN. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) No.1- 1967-
PEMNDP Pesticide Manual. (The British Crop Protection Council, 20 Bridport Rd., Thornton Heath CR4 7QG, UK) V.1- 1968-
PHTOEH Pharmacology and Toxicology (Copenhagen). (Munksgaard International Pub., POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark) V.60- 1987-
PNASA6 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (National Academy of Sciences, Printing & Pub. Office, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418) V.1- 1915-
PSDTAP Proceedings of the European Society for the Study of Drug Toxicity. (Princeton, NJ 08540) V.1-15, 1963-74. For publisher information, see PESTD5.
QJPPAL Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. (London, UK) V.2-21, 1929-48. For publisher information, see JPPMAB.
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
SEIJBO Senten Ijo. Congenital Anomalies. (Nippon Senten Ijo Gakkai, c/o Kinki Daigaku Igakubu Kaibagaku Kyoshitsu, 380 Nishiyama, Sayama-cho, Mirami-Kawachi-gun, Osaka-fu, Japan) V.1-26, 1960-86. For publisher information, see CGANE7.
TECSDY Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. (Gordon & Breach Science Pub. Inc., 1 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.3(3/4)- 1981-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOERD9 Toxicological European Research. (S.P.E., 10, Ave. de Messine, 75008 Paris, France) V.1- 1978-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOPADD Toxicologic Pathology. (c/o Dr. F.A. de la Iglesia, Warner-Lambert Co., Pharmaceutical Research Div., POB 1047, Ann Arbor, MI 48106) V.6(3/4)- 1978-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOVEFN Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. (18-20 Vadkovskii per. Moscow, 101479, Russia) History Unknown
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPHSDY Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1979-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VHTODE Veterinary and Human Toxicology. (American College of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology, Publication Office, Comparative Toxicology, Manhattan, KS 66506) V.19- 1977-
WDZAEK Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi. Journal of Health Toxicology. (Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi Bianjibu, Dongdaqiao, Chaoyang Menwai, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1987
YAKUD5 Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Inaoka Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan) V.1- 1959-
ZYYZEW Zhongguo Yaolixue Yu Dulixue Zazhi. (Chinese Pharmacological Society, 27 Tai-Ping Road, Beijing 100850, China) V.1- 1986-

Used as dip for bulbs and tubers, for earthworm control, as repellent to ants, roaches, etc.

NIOSH PROFILE (GRAIN HANDLERS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING), FIRL, 4/78

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Organometallic
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

NIOSH Home |  NIOSH Search  |  Site Index  |  Topic List |  Contact Us