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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Melamine

RTECS #

OS0700000

CAS #

108-78-1; 504-18-7; 65544-34-5; 67757-43-1; 68379-55-5; 70371-19-6; 94977-27-2

Updated

July 2013

Molecular Weight

126.15

Molecular Formula

C3H6N6

Synonyms

1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triamine
2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine
2,4,6-Triamino-s-triazine
Aero
Cyanuramide
Cyanuric triamide
Cyanurotriamide
Cyanurotriamine
DG 002 (amine)
Hicophor PR
Isomelamine
NCI-C50715
Pluragard
Pluragard C 133
s-Triazine, 2,4,6-triamino-
Teoharn
Theoharn
Virset 656-4

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild28ZPAK -,153,1972

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
micronucleus testoral/mouse1 gm/kgENMUDM 4,342,1982
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse10 µg/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 37,231,2001
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli78 µg/wellMUREAV 260,349,1991

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 500 µg/m3 (17W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GISAAA 58(2),14,1993

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 195 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
TXAPA9 72,292,1984
oral/rat toxic dose: 197 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-245,1983
oral/rat toxic dose: 162 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
TXAPA9 72,292,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 194670 mg/kg/25W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
NTIS** PB83-202630

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3248 mg/m3GISAAA 58(2),14,1993
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgEye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
38MKAJ 2A,2769,1981
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 3200 mg/kgEye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
38MKAJ 2A,2769,1981
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3296 mg/kgTXAPA9 72,292,1984
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3161 mg/kgTXAPA9 72,292,1984
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >1 gm/kgATDAEI 1,110,1990
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kgGISAAA 58(2),14,1993
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6 gm/kgGISAAA 58(2),14,1993

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 58 µg/m3/45D- continuousBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA -,14,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 58 µg/m3/120D- continuousBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
GISAAA -,14,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/90D- continuousBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
GISAAA -,14,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 58 µg/m3/105D- continuousBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulationGISAAA -,14,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/45D- continuousLiver: Liver function tests impairedGISAAA -,14,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 58 µg/m3/90D- continuousLiver: Liver function tests impairedGISAAA -,14,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/120D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)GISAAA -,14,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 58 µg/m3/17W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
GISAAA 58(2),14,1993
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 93600 mg/kg/13W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesNTPTR* NTP-TR-245,1983
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50400 mg/kg/14D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladderNTPTR* NTP-TR-245,1983
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 65.982 gm/kg/3W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 49,1814,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 197.946 gm/kg/9W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
FCTOD7 49,1814,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 37.3968 gm/kg/14D- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 49,3013,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7873.32 mg/kg/7D- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningFCTOD7 50,2318,2012
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 13497.12 mg/kg/12D- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 50,2318,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21840 mg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** OTS0535236
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32760 mg/kg/13W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-245,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 gm/kg/14D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NTP-TR-245,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3200 mg/kg/8D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 48,1791,2010

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 73,329,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 39,333,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 39,333,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 73,329,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 73,329,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWECIET* (1),-,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 672,10,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHOKMJ* 14,424,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 653,99,2008

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, JUN2003

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 81887; Number of Industries 27; Total Number of Facilities 2132; Number of Occupations 44; Total Number of Employees Exposed 43104; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 6239
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 81887; Number of Industries 32; Total Number of Facilities 1043; Number of Occupations 49; Total Number of Employees Exposed 31892

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);clear evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);no evidence:mouse
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