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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Lithium chloride

RTECS #

OJ5950000

CAS #

7447-41-8

Updated

October 2012

Molecular Weight

42.39

Molecular Formula

ClLi

Synonyms

Chlorku litu (Polish)
Chlorure de lithium (French)

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg/24H moderate28ZPAK -,7,1972
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H severe28ZPAK -,7,1972

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human50 mg/LTJADAB 13,131,1976
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse212 µg/kg/3D- intermittentCYTOAN 54,245,1989
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human50 mg/LTJADAB 13,131,1976
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human70 mmol/LMUREAV 92,427,1982
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae9 mmol/LMUTAEX 1,21,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae3 mmol/LMUTAEX 1,21,1986
sister chromatid exchangeoral/mouse21 mg/kg/3D- intermittentCYTOAN 54,245,1989

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 41360 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)DEPBA5 20,603,1987
intraperitoneal/rat 809 mg/kg (9-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
TJADAB 4,151,1971
intraperitoneal/rat 979 mg/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TJADAB 4,151,1971
intraperitoneal/rat 1 gm/kg (7-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
CRSBAW 167,183,1973
intraperitoneal/rat 1250 mg/kg (7-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)CRSBAW 167,183,1973
intraperitoneal/mouse 320 mg/kg (6-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effectsJPETAB 101,362,1951
oral/mouse 66 gm/kg (1-21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
PHBHA4 46,89,1989
oral/mouse 475 mg/kg (7D male/7D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
GEPHDP 24,9,1993
subcutaneous/mouse 1240 mg/kg (12-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)PSEBAA 144,644,1973
subcutaneous/rat 28 mg/kg (14D male)Reproductive: Other effects on male

Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic
LIFSAK 48,649,1991
subcutaneous/rat 42 mg/kg (21D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)LIFSAK 48,649,1991

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 882 mg/kg/7D- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
PWPSA8 22,343,1979

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3800 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,225,1991
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 5400 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 5,225,1991
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3750 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,225,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
intracerebral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14040 µg/kgEye: Ptosis

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
NYKZAU 69,75,1973
intracerebral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4800 µg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
PJPPAA 26,399,1974
intraperitoneal/cat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 492 mg/kgRPTOAN 42,9,1979
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 624 mg/kgSTGNBT -,157,1999
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 624 mg/kgOlfaction: Deviated nasal septum

Eye: Lacrimation

Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation
VCVN1* -,26,1998
intraperitoneal/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 169.6 mg/kgEndocrine: Change in LHIMSCE2 14,523,1986
intraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 390 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomitingPSCHDL 171,156,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 635.9 mg/kgEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins
BRREAP 380,176,1986
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsEJPHAZ 550,107,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 680 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
VCVN1* -,26,1998
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 600 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseJTBIDS 6,87,1981
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 514 mg/kgPetKP# 22DEC1977
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 925 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
VCVN1* -,26,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 127.182 mg/kgTaste: Change in function

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
PSCHDL 190,135,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 19 mg/kgTaste: Change in functionPBBHAU 87,321,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningPSCHDL 203,763,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1272 mg/kgBehavioral: Fluid intakePBBHAU 2,725,1974
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 63.6 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Wakefulness

Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)
PBBHAU 5,547,1976
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8.2 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsJPETAB 298,539,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 76 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changesEJPHAZ 489,111,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 177,35,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 110 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes
FATOAO 44,531,1981
intratracheal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 205 mg/kgSTGNBT -,157,1999
intravenous/cat lowest published toxic dose: 78.5 mg/kgCardiac: Changes in coronary arteriesFATOAO 49,63,1986
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
JPETAB 100,429,1950
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 363 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Antipsychotic
OYYAA2 7,413,1973
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg/3DBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity
JAMAAP 139,688,1949
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 243 mg/kg/13DBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JAMAAP 139,688,1949
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1165 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
VCVN1* -,26,1998
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgBlood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K
AEMME* 8,956,2001
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1165 mg/kgUSXXAM #6365129
oral/quail lethal dose (50 percent kill): 422 mg/kgAECTCV 12,355,1983
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 775 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
VCVN1* -,26,1998
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 800 mg/kgFATOAO 39,53,1976
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 850 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia
FATOAO 44,531,1981
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 526 mg/kgUSXXAM #6365129
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1530 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
VCVN1* -,26,1998
oral/wild bird lethal dose (50 percent kill): 422 mg/kgAECTCV 12,355,1983
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1629 mg/kgSkin: After topical application: Primary irritationVCVN1* -,28,1998
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1488 mg/kgVCVN1* -,28,1998
subcutaneous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 450 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 885 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 620 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 970 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
VCVN1* -,26,1998
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 738 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
APTOA6 43,51,1978
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving segmental distributionNEROEW 28,888,2003
subcutaneous/pigeon lowest published lethal dose: 513 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 700 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
VCVN1* -,26,1998
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 531 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 499 mg/kgPetKP# 22DEC1977
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.15 mmol/L 24HRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 33,142,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.15 mmol/L 48HRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 33,142,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.15 mmol/L 72HRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 33,142,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 3.96 µmol/L 144HMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other glands
REPTED 33,142,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.05 mmol/L 144HRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 33,142,2012

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/m3/17W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
STGNBT -,157,1999
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)FATOAO 55,46,1992
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity
CNREA8 66,11179,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)PHREP* 60,490,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
FCLPH* 22(Suppl 2),100,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
EURNE* 14,497,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2374 mg/kg/2W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
EURNE* 13,220,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25.4 mg/kg/2D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PBBHAU 37,497,1990
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 414 mg/kg/2D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LHLIFSAK 33,1621,1983
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1484 mg/kg/7D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in gonadotropinsLIFSAK 33,1621,1983
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg/5D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Androgenic
LIFSAK 40,1835,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg/5D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Androgenic
LIFSAK 40,1835,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
DPHFAK 23,439,1971
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 4200 mg/kg/42D- intermittentBehavioral: Coma

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JPETAB 100,429,1950
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 1638 µg/kg/26W- intermittentCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
STGNBT -,157,1999
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.92 gm/kg/4D- continuousEndocrine: Effect on menstrual cycleBRREAP 380,176,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.1 gm/kg/35D- intermittentVascular: Relaxation (isolated tissue)

Vascular: Other changes
CEXPB9 27,55,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360 mg/kg/15D- continuousEndocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ANANAU 170,31,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 96 mg/kg/4D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased
ANANAU 170,31,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2849 mg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
APTOA6 33,92,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 712 mg/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
APTOA6 52,81,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6499 mg/kg/5W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na
APTOA6 35,337,1974
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.3 gm/kg/6W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
PSCHDL 158,80,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 382 mg/kg/3D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
PSCHDL 162,379,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.67 gm/kg/3W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
PSCHDL 162,379,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8.9 gm/kg/28D- intermittentBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sitesJOPSEQ 19,229,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5440 mg/kg/17D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 37,102,1974
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3561 mg/kg/28D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on cyclic nucleotides
JOPSEQ 18,496,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 678 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Fluid intake

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
FAATDF 18,616,1992

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJPHSC* 110,14,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,279,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 11,35,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 11,107,1987

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84472; Number of Industries 36; Total Number of Facilities 2291; Number of Occupations 36; Total Number of Employees Exposed 34091; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 15304
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84472; Number of Industries 26; Total Number of Facilities 1089; Number of Occupations 25; Total Number of Employees Exposed 5881

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; B subtilis rec assay
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
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