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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Lithium carbonate (2:1)

RTECS #

OJ5800000

CAS #

554-13-2

Updated

April 2012

Molecular Weight

73.89

Molecular Formula

CO3·2Li

Synonyms

Camcolit
Candamide
Carbolith
Carbolithium
Carbonic acid lithium salt
Carbonic acid, dilithium salt
Ceglution
CP-15467-61
Dilithium carbonate
Eskalith
Hypnorex
Limas
Liskonum
Lithane
Lithicarb
Lithinate
Lithium carbonate
Lithobid
Lithonate
Lithotabs
NSC-16895
Plenur
Priadel
Quilonum retard
Teralithe (French)

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/human12800 µg/kg/12W- intermittentTJADAB 13,131,1976
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse1200 µg/kg/3D- intermittentCYTOAN 54,245,1989
DNA Damagefibroblast/human500 mg/LMUREAV 169,171,1986
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/human2 gm/LMUREAV 169,171,1986
DNA inhibitionoral/rat420 gm/kg/12W-continuousMUREAV 244,331,1990
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster2 gm/LMUREAV 169,171,1986
sister chromatid exchangeoral/mouse1200 µg/kg/3D- intermittentCYTOAN 54,245,1989

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse 42 mg/kg (60D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)56ZJAL 4,423,1996
intraperitoneal/mouse 40 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)NNAPBA 270,56,1971
intraperitoneal/mouse 200 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTJADAB 26,239,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse 200 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTJADAB 26,239,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse 300 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
ARTODN 71,519,1997
oral/pig 240 gm/kg (36-115D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
PSEBAA 158,123,1978
oral/pig 240 gm/kg (36-115D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effectsPSEBAA 158,123,1978
oral/rat 1.52 gm/kg (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesFATOAO 48,73,1985
oral/rat 800 mg/kg (15-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)FATOAO 46,108,1983
oral/rat 1120 mg/kg (1-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
FATOAO 46,108,1983
oral/rat 1120 mg/kg (8-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathFATOAO 46,108,1983
oral/rat 1520 mg/kg (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralFATOAO 48,73,1985
oral/rat 33 gm/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)REPTED 17,683,2003
oral/woman 3072 mg/kg (1-37W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effectsJOPDAB 81,804,1972
oral/woman 4900 mg/kg (1-35W pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) systemLANCAO 2,595,1974
oral/woman 4256 mg/kg (1-38W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Apgar score (human only)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
BMJOAE 3,233,1973
oral/woman 10080 mg/kg (26W pre-34W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: StillbirthBJPYAJ 154,114,1989
oral/rat 600 mg/kg (9-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemKSRNAM 7,1736,1973
oral/rat 1 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TOLED5 34,115,1986
oral/rat 1050 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTRSDC 10,315,1990
oral/rat 1050 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NTRSDC 10,315,1990
oral/mouse 4650 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
NATUAS 225,73,1970
oral/mouse 4650 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
TXAPA9 17,274,1970
oral/mouse 2 gm/kg (8-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)JTEHD6 10,541,1982
oral/mouse 600 mg/kg (7-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratio
KSRNAM 7,1736,1973
unreported route/woman 540 mg/kg (35-39W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effectsPEDIAU 47,94,1971
unreported route/woman 556 mg/kg (30-34W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effectsJAMAAP 213,865,1970
unreported route/woman 11520 mg/kg (7W prior to copulation/1-38W pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system
CMAJAX 105,847,1971
unreported route/woman 11520 mg/kg (7W prior to copulation/1-38W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Apgar score (human only)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
CMAJAX 105,847,1971
unreported route/mouse 4650 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)LANCAO 2,849,1969

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/man toxic dose: 6132 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
HAEMAX 67,944,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5687.5 mg/kg/91D- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
VOONC* -,1309,1992
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 3600 mg/kg/21W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NEJMAG 302,808,1980
oral/woman toxic dose: 21 gm/kg/3.5Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
ANZJB8 10,62,1980
oral/woman toxic dose: 5940 mg/kg/47W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
AIMEAS 92,262,1980

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mg/L/48HReproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TIVIEQ 2,189,1988
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 mg/L/48HReproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
TIVIEQ 2,189,1988
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 236 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
KSRNAM 7,1273,1973
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 360 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tetany

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)
VCVN1* -,25,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 290 mg/kgFATOAO 48,73,1985
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 88.8 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesFATOAO 47,11,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 88 mg/kgBehavioral: AntipsychoticFATOAO 47,11,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (16 percent kill): 168 mg/kgTOVEFN (4),29,1996
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 156 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
KSRNAM 7,1273,1973
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 425 mg/kgTOVEFN (4),29,1996
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 497 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
KSRNAM 7,1273,1973
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 241 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
KSRNAM 7,1273,1973
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kg27ZQAG -,436,1972
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 4111 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
NEJMAG 287,867,1972
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 54 mg/kgBehavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions
NZMJAX 97,23,1984
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 1080 mg/kg/13W- intermittentSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, allergicJCLPDE 47,330,1986
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 25 gm/kg/4Y- intermittentBehavioral: Tremor

Eye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)
JCLPDE 46,292,1985
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
AJPSAO 141,909,1984
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 128.6 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Cardiac: Change in rate
JEMME* 10,719,1992
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 114.3 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomitingERPSY* 14,172,1999
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsEJPHAZ 553,157,2006
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 531 mg/kgRPTOAN 33,266,1970
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 531 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tetany

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)
VCVN1* -,25,1998
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 404 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tetany

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)
VCVN1* -,25,1998
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 770 mg/kgTOVEFN (4),29,1996
oral/rat lethal dose (16 percent kill): 552 mg/kgTOVEFN (4),29,1996
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 553 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tetany

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)
VCVN1* -,25,1998
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 525 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
KSRNAM 7,1273,1973
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 985 mg/kgTOVEFN (4),29,1996
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 36500 mg/kg/10Y- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Endocrine: Diabetes insipidus (nephrogenic or CNS)
AMDIBO 148,284,1997
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 8760 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentEndocrine: Thyroid weight (goiter)

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hyperfunction
AJMEAZ 99,575,1995
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 612 mg/kg/44D- intermittentBehavioral: Sleep

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, allergic
AJPSAO 152,956,1995
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBehavioral: ExcitementJCLPDE 48,81,1987
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
JEMME* 10,719,1992
subcutaneous/frog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 452 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tetany

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)
VCVN1* -,25,1998
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 413 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tetany

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)
VCVN1* -,25,1998
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 413 mg/kgRPTOAN 33,266,1970
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 434 mg/kgEye: Lacrimation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
KSRNAM 7,1273,1973
unreported route/woman lowest published toxic dose: 556 mg/kg/32DBehavioral: Toxic psychosisJAMAAP 213,865,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/60D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)AJANA2 134,97,1972
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1600 mg/kg/80D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AJANA2 136,297,1973
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1600 mg/kg/80D- intermittentBehavioral: Sleep

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AJANA2 136,297,1973
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other carbohydratesNEROEW 24,359,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 14560 µg/kg/26W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells
STGNBT -,155,1999
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 62561 mg/kg/10Y- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTCTDW 41,359,2003
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/7D- intermittentCardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BPFCLPH* 23(Suppl 1),41,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.6 gm/kg/30D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
FCTOD7 48,1638,2010
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4200 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuseNTPTR* IMM-85001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Endocrine: Other changes
NTPTR* IMM-85001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* IMM-85001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
NTPTR* IMM-85001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4200 mg/kg/14D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement)
NTPTR* IMM-85001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4200 mg/kg/14D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
NTPTR* IMM-85001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.29 gm/kg/14D- continuousEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.62 gm/kg/7D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainHETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 gm/kg/14D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.72 gm/kg/7D- continuousEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.12 gm/kg/7D- continuousEndocrine: Androgenic

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.43 gm/kg/21D- continuousEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Endocrine: Androgenic

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.04 gm/kg/14D- continuousEndocrine: Estrogenic

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.9 gm/kg/21D- continuousEndocrine: Estrogenic

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.95 gm/kg/28D- continuousEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.54 gm/kg/14D- continuousEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.52 gm/kg/7D- continuousReproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 25,243,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 173.6 mg/kg/8W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
PHREP* 59,291,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 33.6 mg/kg/8W- continuousMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
PHREP* 59,291,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 gm/kg/8W- continuousGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glandsTOLED5 180S,S194,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1980 mg/kg/30D- continuousEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
HMMRA2 17,109,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4500 mg/kg/30D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Dehydration

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
KSRNAM 7,1278,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18200 mg/kg/26W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
KSRNAM 7,12,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36400 mg/kg/52W- intermittentCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
KSRNAM 7,12,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.62 gm/kg/5W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on cyclic nucleotides
NEROEW 25,729,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 72000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
REPTED 17,683,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 72000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 17,683,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 99000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
REPTED 17,683,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/7D- continuousBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNSEJPHAZ 489,187,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 648 mg/kg/9D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NEROEW 29,32,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 gm/kg/3W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JPETAB 305,434,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.032 gm/kg/4W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesBCLPT* 105,113,2009
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/2D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
AJEMEN 20,570,2002
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 21900 mg/kg/10y- intermittentBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Endocrine: Hyperparathyroidism

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
PNPPD7 32,903,2008
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Blood: Other changes
FATOAO 47,15,1984

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDICPBB 8,690,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEURNE* 12,361,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 261,77,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X6906; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 3; Number of Occupations 1; Total Number of Employees Exposed 198; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 151
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84414; Number of Industries 17; Total Number of Facilities 2182; Number of Occupations 31; Total Number of Employees Exposed 39147; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 17568
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84414; Number of Industries 8; Total Number of Facilities 1035; Number of Occupations 10; Total Number of Employees Exposed 6333

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
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