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2 - Imidazolidinethione

RTECS #: NI9625000

CAS #: 96-45-7


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 102.17 MF: C3H6N2S


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,3 - Ethylene - 2 - thiourea
  2. 1,3 - Ethylenethiourea
  3. 2 - Imadazoline - 2 - thiol
  4. 2 - Mercaptoimidazoline
  5. 2 - Merkaptoimidazolin (Czech)
  6. 2 - Thiol - dihydroglyoxaline
  7. 4,5 - Dihydroimidazole - 2 (3H) - thione
  8. Akrochem etu - 22
  9. ETU
  10. Ethylene thiourea
  11. Ethylene thiouree (French)
  12. Ethylenethiourea
  13. Imidazole - 2 (3H) - thione, 4,5 - dihydro -
  14. Imidazoline, 2 - mercapto -
  15. Imidazoline - 2 - thiol
  1. N,N' - Ethylenethiourea
  2. NA - 22
  3. NA - 22 - D
  4. NCI - C03372
  5. Pennac CRA
  6. RCRA waste number U116
  7. Robac 22
  8. Rodanin S - 62 (Czech)
  9. Sanceller 22
  10. Sodium - 22 neoprene accelerator
  11. USAF EL - 62
  12. Urea, 1,3 - ethylene - 2 - thio -
  13. Vulkacit npv/C2
  14. Warecure C


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 85JCAE -,988,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis parenteral
rat
200 mg/kg MUREAV 38,349,1976
cytogenetic analysis oral
rat
200 mg/kg CSHCAL 4,267,1977
DNA damage Bacillus subtilis 2 mg/disc PMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
2 gm/kg MUREAV 391,201,1997
DNA repair Escherichia coli 500 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,195,1981
DNA repair Salmonella typhimurium 20 mg/plate MUREAV 38,122,1976
DNA repair Saccharomyes cerevisiae 300 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,502,1981
host-mediated assay mouse
Salmonella typhimurium
6 gm/kg MUREAV 56,111,1977
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 200 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 1,396,1981
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 1,800 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 12,85,1988
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step) EXPEAM 31,214,1975
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 20 g/plate (-enzymatic activation step) BJCAAI 37,873,1978
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 5 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) MGGEAE 174,39,1979
gene conversion and mitotic recombination oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1 mmol/L/48 hour MUREAV 518,95,2002
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 50 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,491,1981
morphological transform hamster kidney 80 g/L BJCAAI 37,873,1978
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 10 gm/L PMRSDJ 1,224,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 39,200 mol/L MUREAV 172,139,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,468,1981
specific locus test multiple
Drosophila melanogaster
500 mol/L MUREAV 395,229,1997


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 120 mg/m3/3 hour (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** PB277-077
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 27,200 g/m3/3 hour (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system NTIS** PB277-077
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
TJADAB 34,449,1986
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive) TJADAB 34,449,1986
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
CGANE7 30,121,1990
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) CGANE7 30,121,1990
oral
cat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (16-35 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TJADAB 18,311,1978
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system JTEHD6 11,287,1983
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 6,480 mg/kg (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system
SEIJBO 18,11,1978
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 mg/kg (11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
JTEHD6 11,287,1983
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 2,160 mg/kg (6-13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) SEIJBO 18,11,1978
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg (11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
JTEHD6 11,287,1983
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,600 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratio JTEHD6 13,747,1984
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system JTEHD6 5,821,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) TJADAB 23,335,1981
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 27,57A,1983
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TJADAB 27,57A,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg (11-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) JHSCFD 45,184,1999
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system TJADAB 24,131,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system SEIJBO 18,241,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) FCTOD7 20,273,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg (17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
ATSUDG 4,292,1980
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SEIJBO 18,241,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
FAATDF 9,415,1987
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 1,120 mg/kg (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TJADAB 7,243,1973
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system TJADAB 7,243,1973
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg (13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TXAPA9 48,229,1979
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg (13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
TXAPA9 48,229,1979
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (12-13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXAPA9 41,35,1977
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,800 mg/kg (7 day prior to copulation/1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOXID9 12,102,1992
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
AHEMA5 9,89,1980


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 87,360 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-388,1992
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 77 gm/kg/82 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JNCIAM 42,1101,1969
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 86,520 mg/kg/103 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTIS** PB92-191618
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,920 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-388,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,306 mg/kg/77 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
JNCIAM 49,583,1972
oral
rat
toxic dose : 11,466 mg/kg/78 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
JJIND8 67,75,1981
oral
rat
toxic dose : 44 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
EJTXAZ 9,303,1976
oral
rat
toxic dose : 146 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
EJTXAZ 9,303,1976
oral
rat
toxic dose : 9,125 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
FCTXAV 13,493,1975
oral
rat
toxic dose : 5,470 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
GTPZAB 32(2),25,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,737.5 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,475 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,125 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,815 mg/kg/103 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTIS** PB92-191618
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,012.5 mg/kg/103 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTIS** PB92-191618


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R NTIS** AD277-689
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes ATSUDG 8,253,1985
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3 gm/kg N/R TJADAB 21,71,1980
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,832 mg/kg N/R BECTA6 7,19,1972
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7,800 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 30(5),59,1986


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 g/m3/10 year- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction BJIMAG 41,362,1984
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 277.2 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
EVHPAZ 110,363,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
EVHPAZ 110,363,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 297 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
ATSUDG 9,339,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 764 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
JEPTDQ 1(1),147,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 220 mg/kg/7 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 67,264,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,600 mg/kg/17 week- continuous Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BECTA6 7,19,1972
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,800 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,475 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,950 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 375 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,140.6 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,281 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hyperfunction JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,281 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Cardiac: Changes in heart weight JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
JAFCAU 21,324,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 34.86 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
EVHPAZ 110,363,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 29.05 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction EVHPAZ 110,363,2002


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 79,-,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENVRAL 7,243,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AIHAAP 39(6),A34,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85CVA2 5,250,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CNDQA8 14,49,1979
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 17,69,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 26,1,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,501,2002


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.6 mg/m3, Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.024 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN Group B Carcinogen, JUN2005


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ETHYLENE THIOUREA-air Carcinogen lowest feasible concentration NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 82079;
Number of Industries 13;
Total Number of Facilities 1,100;
Number of Occupations 39;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 7,475
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 82079;
Number of Industries 11;
Total Number of Facilities 462;
Number of Occupations 24;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 10,749;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 1,804


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Rodent dominant lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Host-mediated assay; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: TRP reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as vulcanizing accelerator in rubber processing and electroplating baths
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 22, 1978
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ethylene thiourea, 5011
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);clear evidence:mouse,rat
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #95


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85CVA2 "Oncology 1970, Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress," Chicago, Year Book Medical Pub., 1971
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
AHEMA5 Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia. (Paul Parey Scientific Pub., 35 W. 38th St., Suite 3W, New York, NY 10018) V.2- 1973-
AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 1958-
ATSUDG Archives of Toxicology, Supplement. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1978-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
BJIMAG British Journal of Industrial Medicine. (British Medical Journal, Box 560B, Kennebunkport, ME 04046) V.1- 1944-
CGANE7 Congenital Anomalies. (Nippon Senten Ijo Gakkai, 377-2 Ono-higashi, Osakasayama, Osaka-Fu 589 Japan) V.27- 1987-
CNDQA8 Cahiers de Nutrition et de Dietetique. (Editions Meteore, 42, rue du Louvre, 75001 Paris, France) V.1- 1966-
CSHCAL Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation. (Cold Spring Harbor, NY) V.1-10, 1974-83.
EJTXAZ European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene. (Paris, France) V.7-9, 1974-76. For publisher information, see TOERD9.
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
EXPEAM Experientia. (Birkhaeuser Verlag, POB 133, CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1945-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HTOPA*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JAFCAU Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57136, West End Stn., Washington, DC 20037) V.1- 1953-
JEPTDQ Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology. (Park Forest South, IL) V.1-5(3), 1977-81(?). For publisher information, see JEPOEC.
JHSCFD Journal of Health Science. (Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2-12-15 Shibuya, Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo 150-0002, Japan) V. 45- 1999-
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
MGGEAE Molecular and General Genetics. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.99- 1967-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PMRSDJ Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1981-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
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Used as vulcanizing accelerator in rubber processing and electroplating baths

NIOSH PROFILE (RUBBER MANUFACTURING, SYNTHETIC), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (THIOUREA AND COMPOUNDS), SRC, 1/82

NIOSH PROFILE (RUBBER MANUFACTURING, SYNTHETIC), FIRL, 4/78

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Hormone
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 96-46-8
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