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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

2(3H)-Furanone, dihydro-

RTECS #

LU3500000

CAS #

96-48-0

Updated

April 2012

Molecular Weight

86.10

Molecular Formula

C4H6O2

Synonyms

1,2-Butanolide
1,4-Butanolide
2-Oxolanone
4-Butanolide
4-Butyrolactone
4-Deoxytetronic acid
4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone
4-Hydroxybutanoic acid, gamma-lactone
4-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone
4-Hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-lactone
Agrisynth BLO
Butyric acid lactone
Butyric acid, 4-hydroxy-, gamma-lactone
Butyrolactone
Butyryl lactone
Butyrylactone
C-1070
Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone
gamma-6480
gamma-BL
gamma-Butyrolactone
gamma-butyrolactone
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid cyclic ester
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone
gamma-Hydroxybutyrolactone
NCI-C55878
Tetrahydro-2-furanone

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
skin /rabbit 500 µL severeNTIS** OTS0536954

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster2580 mg/LEMMUEG 13,60,1989
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster2990000 µg/L/12H (+/-enzymatic activation step)HPV248 -,-,2002
DNA Damage/Bacillus subtilis20 µL/discPMRSDJ 1,175,1981
morphological transformkidney/hamster25 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,638,1981
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster4940 mg/LEMMUEG 13,60,1989

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 25 gm/kg (20D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductARANDR 10,239,1983
oral/rat 500 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)PHTOEH 62,57,1988

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 191 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-406,1992
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 134930 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex tumors
NTIS** PB92-189323
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 gm/kg/42W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 31,41,1963

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >5100 mg/m3/4HNTIS** OTS0534527
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >300 ppm/8HHPV248 -,-,2002
intramuscular/pigeon lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningJPETAB 317,409,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 99 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle weaknessJTCTDW 41,692,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 54.5 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)JPETAB 313,1314,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 66.8 mg/kgBehavioral: Rigidity (includes catalepsy)JPETAB 313,1314,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 86.8 mg/kgBehavioral: AtaxiaJPETAB 313,1314,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 279.9 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)JPETAB 313,1314,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1100 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AITEAT 13,70,1965
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AITEAT 13,70,1965
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgBehavioral: SleepTOSCF2 73,270,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPBBHAU 89,179,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)JTCTDW 42,735,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kgBehavioral: AtaxiaJTCTDW 42,741,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: OogenesisHPV248 -,-,2002
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgAITEAT 13,70,1965
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.429 mL/kgBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Excitement

Cardiac: Change in rate
CTOXAO 47,714,2009
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Ataxia
PSCHDL 204,465,2009
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdPSCHDL 204,465,2009
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
PSCHDL 204,465,2009
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1460 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
GISAAA 64(2),3,1999
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1540 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
GTPZAB 31(1),49,1987
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1580 mg/kgBehavioral: ComaHPV248 -,-,2002
parenteral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 1600 mg/kgCBCCT* 7,687,1955
skin/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): >5 gm/kgGAFCC*

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5030 µg/m3/24H/17W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 64(2),3,1999
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 68 gm/kg/16W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-406,1992
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 134930 mg/kg/103W- intermittentLiver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** PB92-189323
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 68250 mg/kg/13W- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV248 -,-,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 29250 mg/kg/13W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
HPV248 -,-,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 115875 mg/kg/103W- intermittentSkin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** PB92-189323
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9600 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
GISAAA 64(2),3,1999
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9600 mg/kg/16D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-406,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40950 mg/kg/13W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTPTR* NTP-TR-406,1992

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 11,231,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal No EvidenceIMEMDT 71,367,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 11,231,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,367,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 71,367,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJJATDK 26,72,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,683,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCLPH* 23(Suppl 1),98,2009

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 50 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 250 ppm (70 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, JUN2003

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code M1130; Number of Industries 38; Total Number of Facilities 4447; Number of Occupations 42; Total Number of Employees Exposed 44126; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 11013
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code M1130; Number of Industries 12; Total Number of Facilities 1476; Number of Occupations 18; Total Number of Employees Exposed 5155

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);equivocal evidence:mouse
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);no evidence:rat
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