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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Furan

RTECS #

LT8524000

CAS #

110-00-9

Updated

April 2013

Molecular Weight

68.08

Molecular Formula

C4H4O

Synonyms

1,4-Epoxy-1,3-butadiene
Axole
Divinylene oxide
Furfuran
NCI-C56202
Oxacyclopentadiene
Oxole
RCRA waste number U124
Tetrole

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster184 mmol/LCALEDQ 13,89,1981
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/rat5 mg/kgTOXID9 60,154,2001
DNA Damageoral/rat640 mg/kg/8W-continuousMUREAV 742,72,2012
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis3500 µg/discDFSCDX 13,353,1986
micronucleus testliver/rat10 µmol/L/3HTOXID9 66,182,2002
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse1139 mg/LEMMUEG 12,85,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium825 nmol/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step)DFSCDX 13,353,1986
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/mouse30 mg/kgMUREAV 747,164,2012
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster3 µmol/L/32HMUREAV 580,41,2005
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat30 µmol/L/3HTOXID9 66,182,2002

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 3900 mg/kg (13W male/13W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
NTPTR* NTP-TR-402,1993
oral/rat 520 mg/kg (90D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTOXID9 -,176,2008

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4160 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-402,1993
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4120 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB93-228419
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2080 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ETPAEK 61,101,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4160 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ETPAEK 61,101,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1080 mg/kg/36W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Angiosarcoma

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXCYAC 192,71,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1950 mg/kg/36W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Liver: Angiosarcoma
NTIS** PB93-228419
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1030 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Liver: Angiosarcoma
NTIS** PB93-228419
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1030 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB93-228419
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2060 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NTIS** PB93-228419
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1040 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Liver: Angiosarcoma
NTPTR* NTP-TR-402,1993

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 120 mg/m3/1HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AIHAAP 40,310,1979
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 120 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaENTOX* -,392,2005
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3 gm/m3TPKVAL 9,3,1967
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3 gm/m3/2HBehavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 9,106,1967
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 2 gm/m3/2HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
TPKVAL 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3 gm/m3/2HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
TPKVAL 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1.75 gm/m3/2HLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney

Blood: Hemorrhage
TPKVAL 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 gm/m3/4HLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
TPKVAL 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3 gm/m3TPKVAL 9,3,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 gm/m3/4HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TPKVAL 12,44,1971
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 1.5 gm/m3/4HBlood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TPKVAL 12,44,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.007 gm/m3/4HBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia
TPKVAL 12,44,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 gm/m3/4HTPKVAL 12,44,1971
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2.8 gm/m3/2HTPKVAL 10,35,1968
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3398 ppm/1HEye: Ptosis

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
HAZL** HLA468-102,1987
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 4.2 gm/m3TPKVAL 10,35,1968
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 1.8 gm/m3Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
TPKVAL 10,35,1968
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 7 mg/kgMUREAV 747,164,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)TOLED5 169,43,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)TOLED5 169,43,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7 mg/kgAIHAAP 40,310,1979
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5200 µg/kgAIHAAP 40,310,1979
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 140 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Blood: Hemorrhage
JPETAB 26,281,1926
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 234 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Hemorrhage
JPETAB 26,281,1926
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 234 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Hemorrhage
JPETAB 26,281,1926
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/24HLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes
MUREAV 549,147,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight
MUREAV 549,169,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)MUREAV 549,169,2004
skin/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 100 pph/30MPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
TPKVAL 9,106,1967
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 275 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)TOLED5 169,43,2007

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 0.005 gm/m3/0.5Y- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
TPKVAL 12,44,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.2 gm/m3/61D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 10,35,1968
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.65 gm/m3/2W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.65 gm/m3/2W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Liver: Other changes
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.65 gm/m3/2W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in spleen

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 gm/m3/30D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 gm/m3/61D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Cardiac: Changes in coronary arteries

Vascular: Other changes
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 gm/m3/61D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Liver: Multiple effects
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 gm/m3/61D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in spleen

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.65 gm/m3/61D- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countTOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 gm/m3/91D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 gm/m3/153D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 gm/m3/122D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 gm/m3/183D- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 gm/m3/183D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TOVEFN 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/4H/60D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/2H/9W- intermittentLiver: Jaundice, other or unclassified

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 10,35,1968
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/4H/26W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
TPKVAL 10,35,1968
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/2H/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 9,106,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.005 gm/m3/0.5Y- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
TPKVAL 12,44,1971
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/3W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
ETPAEK 61,101,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/3W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
ETPAEK 61,101,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3560 mg/kg/89W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainETPAEK 61,101,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1040 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ETPAEK 61,101,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2080 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Changes in liver weight
ETPAEK 61,101,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1950 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NTP-TR-402,1993
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2730 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NTP-TR-402,1993
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/26D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,353,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4160 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOXID9 60,154,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2080 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentLiver: Tumors

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 60,154,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AJPAA4 145,375,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/16D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NTP-TR-402,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3900 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-402,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 720 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
FCTOD7 48,1293,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in platelet count
FCTOD7 48,1293,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
FCTOD7 48,1293,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
MUREAV 742,72,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
MUREAV 549,169,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Other changesMUREAV 549,169,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 520 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOXID9 -,176,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 520 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
TOXID9 -,176,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 130 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,176,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 520 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 -,176,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 -,154,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOXID9 -,155,2009
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2940 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOXID9 66,63,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 63,393,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 63,393,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 63,393,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,392,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHETOEA 25,413,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 48,,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,223,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,46,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 286,1,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 746,104,2012

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 34185; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 14; Number of Occupations 2; Total Number of Employees Exposed 35; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 7
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 34185; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 25; Number of Occupations 3; Total Number of Employees Exposed 244

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse,rat
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
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