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Ethylene oxide

RTECS #: KX2450000

CAS #: 75-21-8


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 44.06 MF: C2H4O


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,2 - Epoxyaethan (German)
  2. 1,2 - Epoxyethane
  3. Aethylenoxid (German)
  4. Amprolene
  5. Anprolene
  6. Anproline
  7. Dihydrooxirene
  8. Dimethylene oxide
  9. E.O.
  10. ENT - 26263
  11. EO
  12. ETO
  13. Epoxyethane
  14. Ethene oxide
  15. Ethox
  16. Ethyleenoxide (Dutch)
  17. Ethylene (oxyde d') (French)
  18. Ethylene oxide (ACGIH:OSHA)
  1. Etilene (ossido di) (Italian)
  2. Etylenu tlenek (Polish)
  3. FEMA No. 2433
  4. Merpol
  5. NCI - C50088
  6. Oxacyclopropane
  7. Oxane
  8. Oxidoethane
  9. Oxiraan (Dutch)
  10. Oxiran
  11. Oxirane
  12. Oxirene, dihydro -
  13. Oxyfume
  14. Oxyfume 12
  15. RCRA waste number U115
  16. Sterilizing gas ethylene oxide 100%
  17. T - Gas
  18. alpha,beta - Oxidoethane


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
18 mg/6 hour moderate BUYRAI 31,25,1977
skin
human
1%/7S AMIHBC 2,549,1950


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis parenteral
Drosophila melanogaster
55 mmol/L ZEVBA5 92,457,1961
cytogenetic analysis hamster fibroblast 250 ppm ESKHA5 (102),77,1984
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
human
5 ppm/1 year MUREAV 170,55,1986
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
monkey
100 ppm/7 hour/2 year- intermittent TXAPA9 76,85,1984
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
monkey
100 ppm/104 week MUREAV 492,59,2001
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
mouse
400 ppm/6 hour- continuous ARTODN 59,332,1987
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
88,120 µg/kg MUREAV 288,223,1993
cytogenetic analysis rat bone marrow 30 µg/L/2 day TNICS* 13,47,1973
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
1 µg/L/17 week TPKVAL 13,51,1973
cytogenetic analysis oral
rat
9 mg/kg TPKVAL 12,72,1971
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
3.6 µg/L/66 day - intermittent TPKVAL 14,11,1975
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
0.45 mg/L/8 day- intermittent TPKVAL 11,148,1969
dominant lethal test inhalation
mouse
204 ppm/6 hour/48 day- intermittent EMMUEG 16,126,1990
dominant lethal test intraperitoneal
mouse
150 mg/kg ENMUDM 2,252,1980
dominant lethal test inhalation
rat
1,000 ppm/4 hour TXAPA9 40,261,1977
dominant lethal test subcutaneous
rat
40 mg/kg GISAAA 48(1),23,1983
DNA adduct inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
2 ppm/24 hour MUREAV 529,95,2003
DNA adduct inhalation
mouse
100 ppm/6 hour/6 week- intermittent TOXID9 72(Supp 1),249,2003
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
rat
0.1 mg/kg CRTOEC 20,290,2007
DNA damage human fibroblast 5 mmol/L EMMUEG 24,161,1994
DNA damage human other cell types 20 µmol/L/1 hour MUREAV 585,120,2005
DNA damage human mammary gland 20 µmol/L/1 hour MUREAV 585,120,2005
DNA damage human lymphocyte 20 µmol/L/1 hour MUREAV 585,120,2005
DNA damage human HeLa cell 50 µmol/L/1 hour MUREAV 585,120,2005
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg MUREAV 197,93,1988
DNA damage inhalation
mouse
1,800 ppm/1 hour- continuous MUREAV 209,177,1988
unscheduled DNA synthesis human leukocyte 4 mmol/L CBINA8 47,265,1983
unscheduled DNA synthesis inhalation
mouse
300 ppm ENMUDM 1,166,1979
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 3,500 µmol/10 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 24,83,1974
mutation in microorganisms Neurospora crassa 140 mmol/L/10 minute (-enzymatic activation step) MGGEAE 101,185,1968
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 540 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step) 47YKAF 8,273,1981
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 40 µmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step) FCTXAV 18,115,1980
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 20 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 11,65,1988
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 25 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 250,229,1991
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
150 mg/kg MUREAV 75,191,1980
micronucleus test intravenous
mouse
200 mg/kg APTOA6 43,69,1978
micronucleus test inhalation
mouse
380 ppm/3 hour- continuous ESKHA5 (102),84,1984
micronucleus test intravenous
rat
200 mg/kg APTOA6 43,69,1978
micronucleus test inhalation
rat
200 ppm/6 hour/4 week- intermittent MUREAV 324,87,1994
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
rat
50 ppm MUREAV 492,59,2001
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 25 mmol/L MUREAV 250,229,1991
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster ovary 5 mg/L/1 hour JTEHD6 12,27,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 7,500 ppm/2 hour- continuous ENMUDM 8,67,1986
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human fibroblast 5 mmol/L MUREAV 287,283,1993
mutation in mammalian somatic cells intraperitoneal
mouse
200 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent MUREAV 288,151,1993
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 5 µmol/L PAACA3 21,74,1980
mutation in mammalian somatic cells inhalation
mouse
200 ppm/6 hour/4 week- intermittent MUREAV 392,211,1997
morphological transform hamster embryo 625 ppm/2 hour- continuous ENMUDM 8,67,1986
morphological transform mouse embryo 2,500 µmol/L MUTAEX 4,58,1989
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 4 pph TCMUD8 6,15,1986
sister chromatid exchange human fibroblast 36 ppm/24 hour ZHPMAT 170,548,1980
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 10 mg/L PHMGBN 25,214,1982
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
human
380 ppb/6 hour/4 year- intermittent SWEHDO 17,60,1991
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
human
60 ppm/12 week- intermittent MUREAV 281,31,1992
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
monkey
50 ppm/7 hour/2 year- intermittent TXAPA9 76,85,1984
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
mouse
88,120 µg/kg MUREAV 288,223,1993
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
rat
50 ppm/6 hour/3 day- continuous MUREAV 120,37,1983
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
rat
50 ppm/4 week MUREAV 492,59,2001
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
rat
50 ppm MUREAV 492,59,2001
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
rabbit
50 ppm/12 week- intermittent ENMUDM 4,121,1982
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
rabbit
250 ppm/12 week MUREAV 492,59,2001
sister chromatid exchange Saccharomyes cerevisiae 25 mmol/L MUREAV 250,229,1991
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction parenteral
Drosophila melanogaster
55 mmol/L ZEVBA5 92,457,1961
specific locus test parenteral
Drosophila melanogaster
114 mmol/L CNREA8 30,195,1970
specific locus test inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
750 ppm MUREAV 405,259,1998
specific locus test inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
3.9 ppm/24 hour MUREAV 529,95,2003
specific locus test inhalation
mouse
25 ppm/6 hour/48 week MUTAEX 19,215,2004
specific locus test inhalation
mouse
200 ppm/6 hour/24 week MUTAEX 19,215,2004
heritable translocation test intraperitoneal
mouse
30 mg/kg/25 day- intermittent ENMUDM 2,252,1980
heritable translocation test inhalation
mouse
165 ppm/6 hour/48 day- intermittent EMMUEG 16,126,1990


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/7 hour (96 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) ATAREK 8-84,7,1984
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/7 hour (2 year male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TOXID9 3,60,1983
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 255 ppm/6 hour (10 day male) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death MUREAV 119,377,1983
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,200 ppm/90 minute (1 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
MUREAV 176,269,1987
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,200 ppm/90 minute (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
TJADAB 39,563,1989
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,700 ppm/6 hour (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus TJADAB 57,231,1998
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,800 ppm/1.5 hour (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TOSCF2 50,259,1999
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6 hour (91 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) NEZAAQ 45,592,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TXAPA9 48,A84,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6 hour (12 week male/9 week prior to copulation-3 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth) TXAPA9 48,A84,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,600 µg/m3/24 hour (60 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)
TPKVAL 14,11,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6 hour (12 week prior to copulation-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
TXAPA9 63,382,1982
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/7 hour (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** PB83-258038
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3.6 mg/m3 (66 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) TPKVAL 14,11,1975
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg (25 day male) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
MUREAV 73,133,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death MUREAV 73,133,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg (1 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
TJADAB 53,1,1996
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg (1 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TJADAB 53,1,1996
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg (10-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TJADAB 19,34A,1979
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg (8-10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system TJADAB 19,34A,1979
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg (10-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TXAPA9 56,16,1980
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 324 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) NTIS** PB83-242016
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 81 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** #PB83-242016
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 81 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratio NTIS** #PB83-242016


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 ppm/6 hour/2 year Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-326,1987
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,060 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTIS** PB88-169859
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,060 mg/kg/102 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors
NTIS** PB88-169859
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 33 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
TXAPA9 75,105,1984
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 50 ppm/7 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors
TXAPA9 76,69,1984
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 33 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
NRTXDN 6,117,1985
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 33 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
FCTOD7 24,145,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,186 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
BJCAAI 46,924,1982
oral
rat
toxic dose : 5,112 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
BJCAAI 46,924,1982
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 292 mg/kg/95 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZHPMAT 174,383,1981
subcutaneous
mouse
toxic dose : 1,090 mg/kg/91 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 39,588,1979
subcutaneous
mouse
toxic dose : 908 mg/kg/95 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZHPMAT 174,383,1981
subcutaneous
mouse
toxic dose : 2,576 mg/kg/95 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZHPMAT 174,383,1981


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 960 ppm/4 hour Eye: Lacrimation

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
AMIHAB 13,237,1956
inhalation
dog
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 960 ppm/4 hour N/R ENTOX* -,294,2005
inhalation
guinea pig
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/m3/4 hour N/R 85GMAT -,67,1982
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 12,500 ppm/10S Olfaction: Other olfaction effects JOHYAY 32,409,1932
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 835 ppm/4 hour N/R ENTOX* -,294,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 800 ppm/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
34ZIAG -,258,1969
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,460 ppm/4 hour N/R ENTOX* -,294,2005
inhalation
woman
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/2 minute Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
DICPBB 15,384,1981
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 175 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 48(1),23,1983
intravenous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 330 mg/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JTCSAQ 61,309,1971
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 290 mg/kg N/R APTOA6 43,69,1978
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 175 mg/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Rigidity (includes catalepsy)
JOHYAY 32,409,1932
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 270 mg/kg N/R JIHTAB 23,259,1941
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 72 mg/kg N/R SPEADM 78-1,17,1978
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R HDWU** -,-,1933
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 187 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 48(1),23,1983
unreported route
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
34ZIAG -,258,1969


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 290 ppm/6 hour/6 week- intermittent Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
AMIHAB 13,237,1956
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 102 ppm/26 week- intermittent Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
AMIHAB 13,237,1956
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7 hour/2 year- intermittent Eye: Other eye effects TOXID9 12,354,1992
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field NTPTR* NTP-TR-326,1987
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JOUOD4 14,33,1992
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/6 hour/14 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Endocrine: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-326,1987
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 450 mg/m3/6 hour/10 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
NTIS** OTS0534608
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 406 ppm/6 hour/6 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AMIHAB 13,237,1956
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 µg/m3/24 hour/83 day- continuous Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Cl
GISAAA 31(10),3,1966
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Other changes
NEZAAQ 43,1053,1988
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3.6 mg/m3/66 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TPKVAL 14,11,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.2 gm/m3/4 day- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) TPKVAL 11,148,1969
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.45 gm/m3/4 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression TPKVAL 11,148,1969
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.45 gm/m3/2 day- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) TPKVAL 11,148,1969
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 81 mg/kg/9 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field NTIS** #PB83-242016
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 72 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTIS** #PB83-242016
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 144 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation NTIS** #PB83-242016


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 1 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Suspected human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 36,189,1985
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMSUDL 7,205,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 60,73,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 60,73,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 1 IMEMDT 60,73,1994
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JJOMDZ 15,808,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AEHLAU 8,700,1964
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 30,595,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 138,1,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 580,91,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 613,17,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,294,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 19,169,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 25,192,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,561,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,501,2002


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Supported RBREV* -,182,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 50 ppm (90 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,112,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1926.1147 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (90 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) cancer hazard CFRGBR 29,1910.1047,1987
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 10 ppm (20 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 2 mg/m3 (1 mL/m3), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 1 ppm (2.8 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 1 ppm, VLE 5 ppm, continuous2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 1.8 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), group 1 carcinogen, sen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 1 ppm (2 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 1 ppm (2 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.84 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 1 ppm, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 1 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 3 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 1 ppm (2 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 1 ppm (2 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 5 ppm (9.2 mg/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Suspected human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Suspected human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ETHYLENE OXIDE-air Carcinogen;
8 hour time-weighted average 0.1 ppm;
ceiling concentration 5 ppm/10 minute
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 32550;
Number of Industries 67;
Total Number of Facilities 7,411;
Number of Occupations 74;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 107,450
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 32550;
Number of Industries 89;
Total Number of Facilities 10,657;
Number of Occupations 104;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 270,683;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 120,086


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/91/180554/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-reciprocal translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Rodent dominant lethal; Rodent heritable translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mammalian micronucleus; N crassa-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal; UDS in mouse germ cells
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Mouse specific locus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used in the production of glycols, nontonic surface-active agents and ethanolamines
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9104
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 35, MAY 1981
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 52, JULY 1989
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ethylene oxide, 1614 or by portable GC, 3702
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);clear evidence:mouse
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #30, SUPERSEDED BY #50
PASSIVE MONITOR, OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #49


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
47YKAF "Sporulation and Germination, Proceedings of the Eighth International Spore Conference, 1980," Washington, DC, American Soc. of Microbiology, 1981
85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
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DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ESKHA5 Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku. Bulletin of the Institute of Hygienic Sciences. (Kokuritsu Eisei Shikenjo Kagaku, 18-1 Bushitsu Johobu, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158, Japan) V.1- 1886-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HDWU** "Beitrage zur Toxikologie des Athylenoxyds und der Glykole, Dissertation," Hofbauer, A., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1933
HTOPA*
HUTOX*
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JOHYAY Journal of Hygiene. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 32 E. 57th St., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 1901-
JOUOD4 Journal of UOEH (University of Occupational and Environmental Health). (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807, Japan) V.1- 1979-
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Used in the production of glycols, nontonic surface-active agents and ethanolamines

Top 50 chemical production: 5.56 billions lbs in 1992, 5.25 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (EPOXY COMPOUNDS), SRC, 2/82

NIOSH PROFILE (FUMIGANTS), SRC, 10/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 19034-08-3
ALT CAS #: 99932-75-9
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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