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Ethylene, 1,1 - dichloro -

RTECS #: KV9275000

CAS #: 75-35-4


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 96.94 MF: C2H2Cl2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,1 - Dichloroethene
  2. 1,1 - Dichloroethene (9CI)
  3. 1,1 - Dichloroethylene
  4. Chlorure de vinylidene (French)
  5. Ethene, 1,1 - dichloro -
  6. NCI - C54262
  7. RCRA waste number U078
  1. VDC
  2. Vinylidene chloride
  3. Vinylidene chloride (ACGIH)
  4. Vinylidene chloride (II)
  5. Vinylidene dichloride
  6. Vinylidine chloride


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 250 mg/L MUREAV 187,157,1987
DNA damage inhalation
mouse
50 ppm TXAPA9 53,357,1980
DNA damage inhalation
rat
10 ppm TXAPA9 53,357,1980
DNA damage Saccharomyes cerevisiae 75 mmol/L MUREAV 206,209,1988
unscheduled DNA synthesis inhalation
mouse
50 ppm TXAPA9 53,357,1980
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
mouse
200 mg/kg TXCYAC 36,199,1985
host-mediated assay mouse
Saccharomyes cerevisiae
400 mg/kg MUREAV 89,179,1981
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 2,500 Ámol/L (+enzymatic activation step) BCPCA6 24,2013,1975
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 5 pph (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 57,141,1978
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 3 pph/2 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 58,183,1978
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 20 Ámol/L/3 day (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 572,98,2005
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 30 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 89,179,1981
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 30 mmol/L MUREAV 89,179,1981
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 75 mg/L MUREAV 187,157,1987
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 500 ppm MUREAV 266,117,1992
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 50 mmol/L MUREAV 206,209,1988
specific locus test mouse lymphocyte 160 ppm/48 hour- continuous EMMUEG 17,122,1991
specific locus test intraperitoneal
mouse
64,990 Ámol/L MUREAV 608,29,2006


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/7 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system TXAPA9 49,189,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 55 ppm/6 hour (55 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated) JTEHD6 3,965,1977
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/7 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TXAPA9 49,189,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TXAPA9 49,189,1979


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/4 hour/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Blood: Leukemia
MELAAD 68,241,1977
inhalation
mouse
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 55 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
JTEHD6 7,909,1981
inhalation
mouse
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 55 ppm/6 hour/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
EVHPAZ 21,25,1977
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 220 mg/m3/40 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Angiosarcoma
VCVGH* -,432,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 55 ppm/6 hour/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JTEHD6 4,15,1978
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 150 ppm/4 hour/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
MELAAD 68,241,1977
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 55 ppm/6 hour/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors
EVHPAZ 21,25,1977
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 150 ppm/4 hour/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
EVHPAZ 21,45,1977
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 55 ppm/6 hour/28 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
JTEHD6 7,909,1981
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,840 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
JJIND8 63,1433,1979


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 8,000 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction VCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm Behavioral: General anesthetic

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
CHINAG (11),463,1976
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,000 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3 Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases VCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 40 ppm/4 hour N/R ENTOX* -,440,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6,350 ppm/4 hour Behavioral: Coma TXAPA9 18,168,1971
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10,000 mg/m3 N/R VCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,300 mg/m3/4 hour N/R VCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10,000 ppm/4 hour N/R ENTOX* -,440,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes JPETAB 297,1193,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TOXID9 44,467,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 78,402,2004
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 225 mg/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 5,750 mg/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 194 mg/kg N/R BJCAAI 37,411,1978
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R NTIS** PB85-143766
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Liver: Other changes TOXID9 60,38,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CRTOEC 16,1306,2003
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 3,700 mg/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
skin
rabbit
lethal dose : >2,426 mg/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A180-198
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response
TOXID9 72,194,2003
unreported route
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,430,1990


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 189 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 189 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 189 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 189 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 143 mg/m3/6 hour/1 year- intermittent Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Rigidity (includes catalepsy)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGH* -,432,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 158 mg/m3/6 hour/5 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes VCVGH* -,432,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 101 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/3 hour/16 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in spleen
VCVGH* -,433,1990
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/14 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-228,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,500 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-228,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,300 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
JJATDK 3,90,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Hemorrhage

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-228,1982


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 5 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 39,195,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 71,1163,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 39,195,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,1163,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 71,1163,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 539,77,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NTIS** ORNL/TIRC-77/3
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
VHTODE 22,31,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,440,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (79 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (80 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (40 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (80 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), continuous3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 8 mg/m3 (2 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 8 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 32 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (80 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 20 ppm (80 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 20 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (79 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 50 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 80 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 50 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 100 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (40 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 2 ppm (8 mg/m3),KZG- week 4 ppm (16 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 10 ppm (40 mg/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE-air Carcinogen lowest feasible conc. NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 83011;
Number of Industries 22;
Total Number of Facilities 879;
Number of Occupations 23;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 10,947
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 83011;
Number of Industries 2;
Total Number of Facilities 97;
Number of Occupations 13;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,679;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 291


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/95/100152/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Rodent dominant lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in the production of copolymers of high VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE content
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 28, 1978
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Vinylidene chloride, 1015
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);no evidence:mouse,rat
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #19


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

BCPCA6 Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1958-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
CHINAG Chemistry and Industry (London). (Royal Soc. of Chemistry, Distribution Centre, Blackhorse Rd., Letchworth, Herts SG6 1HN, UK) V.1- 1923-
CRTOEC Chemical Research in Toxicology. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57/36, West End Station, Washington, DC 20037) V.1- 1988-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
MELAAD Medicina del Lavoro. Industrial Medicine. (Via S. Barnaba, 8, 20122 Milan, Italy) V.16- 1925-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
QJPPAL Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. (London, UK) V.2-21, 1929-48. For publisher information, see JPPMAB.
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov". (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1990.
VHTODE Veterinary and Human Toxicology. (American College of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology, Publication Office, Comparative Toxicology, Manhattan, KS 66506) V.19- 1977-

Used in the production of copolymers of high VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE content

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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